**Introduction**

Charge Admittance proposes a novel approach to understanding the universe by emphasizing the importance of fundamental numerical relationships. These are hypothesized to play a key role in bridging the gap between classical physics and a new theoretical framework. The theory suggests a potential reevaluation of classical physical units, aiming to explore their origins and significance within the framework of CA. By meticulously analyzing these numerical constants and variables, CA aspires to challenge current paradigms and offer fresh insights into the workings of the universe.

**Ratios**

Traditional constants, such as the speed of light (c), the permittivity (ε_{0}), and permeability (μ_{0}) of free space, are not immutable values but rather interdependent parameters governed by underlying mechanisms. These numbers are related to the speed of energy being subject to the acceleration of gravity – CA’s SEEP concept, similar to the idea of Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) used in chemistry.

*CA challenges the notion of constants by proposing that, apart from a select few mathematical ratios, there are no true constants in the universe.*

**π (Pi)**

Description: The ratio of a circle’s diameter to its circumference.

Value: π ≈ 3.1415926535

Status: Fundamental constant derived from geometric principles. Integral in geometry and trigonometry, π serves as a foundational constant in numerous mathematical and physical contexts.

**e (Euler’s number)**

Description: The base of natural logarithms.

Value: e ≈ 2.7182818284

Status: Fundamental constant derived from mathematical principles. e is ubiquitous in mathematical modeling, particularly in contexts involving growth and decay.

**α (Fine-Structure ratio)**

Description: A dimensionless constant representing the strength of electromagnetic interactions between elementary charged particles.

Value: α ≈ 0.00729735257

Status: Fundamental constant determined empirically from experiments in particle physics. Governs the behavior of charged particles in quantum electrodynamics and is crucial for understanding atomic and subatomic phenomena

**Constants as variable limit values**

**CA posits what many see as constants manifest from complex interactions within the time and the energy domain are actually limits.**

Our understanding of the universe is constantly evolving. Fundamental constants, once considered absolute, may exhibit variation under extreme conditions or with deeper investigation. Conversely, quantities initially thought to be variable might later be revealed to be constant within specific frameworks. The search for a comprehensive theory that unifies these concepts remains an ongoing challenge in physics. For example, Planck’s constant, although widely accepted as a fundamental constant, lacks a comprehensive understanding of its constancy. The other end of the scale is Schwarzschild’s Radius where time and energy disappear but somehow remain.

** Note on abuse of constants:** Just as altering the length of

**meters**to accommodate a theory would distort our understanding of physical reality, adjusting

**time**arbitrarily to suit a theory would compromise the integrity of our temporal measurements and interpretations. Consistency and integrity within scientific frameworks are paramount, ensuring alignment with empirical evidence and coherence with established principles.

**k (Coulomb’s constant)**

Description: Governs the magnitude of the electrostatic force between charged particles.

Value: k ≈ 8.987551792 × 10^{9} N m^{2} C^{−2}

Status: Empirically derived from experiments in electrostatics, fundamental for understanding electrical interactions.

**J (Joule’s Constant)**

Description: Denotes the energy per unit charge.

Value: J ≈ 6.24 × 10^{18} J C^{−1}

Status: Empirically determined from experiments involving energy and electric charge, essential for various applications in electromagnetism.

**e (Elementary Charge)**

Description: Represents the fundamental unit of electric charge carried by an electron or proton.

Value: e ≈ −1.602176634 × 10^{−19} C

Status: Measured constant derived from experiments involving charge quantization and electron properties.

**h (Planck’s Constant)**

Description: Represents the fundamental unit of electric charge carried by an electron or proton.

Value: h ≈ 6.62607015 × 10^{−34} J s

Status: Empirically derived from experiments involving black-body radiation and the photoelectric effect, fundamental for understanding quantum phenomena.

**Planck’s limit Explained:** *This spacing, equivalent to half the wavelength specified by the photon’s frequency, establishes the critical threshold beyond which the photon’s rotational speed cannot maintain phase relationships with the background permeability of free space.*

**Schwarzschild metric**

Description: Developed by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916 as a solution to Einstein’s field equations of general relativity. Represents the Schwarzschild radius (r), which defines the size of the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole.

Value”** r=2G _{m}/c^{2}** which the mass (m) of an object to its Schwarzschild radius, gravitational constant (G), and the speed of light (c).

CA Value”** r=2G _{Vm}/c^{2}** which the mass (m) of an object to its Schwarzschild radius, gravitational constant (G), and the speed of light (c)

Then where **m = (μ0 ε0)/e** this becomes **r = 2Gv((μ0 ε0)/e/(1/(μ0 ε0))**

Reducing this **r = 2GE/c ^{4}**

Replacing **G** with **G _{v}** from Charge Admittancee where

**G**

_{v}= d_{c}/d_{x}This becomes** r = ((d _{c}/d_{x}) E))/c^{4}**

This equation shows the relationship between the Schwarzschild radius **r**, the derivative of the speed of light with respect to position **dc/dx**, energy **E**, and the speed of light **c**.

This substitution reflects the introduction of a variable speed of light. This perspective that deviates from the constant speed of light assumed in general relativity, and it leads to intriguing insights into the behavior of black holes and gravitational phenomena.

**m (Meters)**

Description: The fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).

Value: The distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.

Status: Declared constant (SI).

**s (Time)**

Description: A fundamental concept representing the progression of events or changes.

Value: seconds

Status: Intelligence-defined constant. Initially conceived as a linear progression, time serves as a reference point for organizing and understanding the universe’s evolution.

**Variables (SEEP referenced)**

**μ _{0} (Permeability of Free Space)**

Description: Represents the intrinsic property of space that determines its resistance to magnetic field lines.

**Value: TBD at event horizon (Swcharzchilds radius) of Black Hole**

**Value: μ _{0} ≈ 1.256637062120 x 10^{−6} N A^{−2} at the surface of earth.**

**Value: μ _{0} ≈ 1.256637021016 x 10^{−6} N A^{−2} in deep space (SEEP)**

Status: A measured variable defined as a fundamental constant in the International System of Units. Essential in defining the strength of magnetic fields and their interactions with electric currents, crucial for various electromagnetic phenomena.

**ε _{0} (Permittivity of Free Space)**

** It is though a fact:** If ε of vacuum (free space) be 0, then there would be infinite force between two objects kept in free space, and it is physically not possible.

Description: Defines the ability of a vacuum to permit the displacement of electric field lines.

**Value: TBD at event horizon (Swcharzchilds radius) of Black Hole**

**Value: ε _{0} ≈ 8.8541878107 × 10^{−12} F m^{−1} at the surface of earth.**

**Value: ε _{0} ≈ 8.8541875211 × 10^{−12} F m^{−1} in deep space (SEEP)**

Status: A measured variable defined as a fundamental constant in the International System of Units. Fundamental in defining the strength of electrostatic fields and their interactions with charged particles, crucial for various electromagnetic phenomena.

Description: Represents the intrinsic property of space that determines its resistance to magnetic field lines.

Description: Represents the maximum velocity at which energy can propagate through space.

The following speeds are those seen by an observer of incoming energy.

**Value: c ≈ 2 c_{s} m/s at event horizon (Swcharzchild’s radius) of Black Hole**

**Value: c ≈ 299,792,458.04 (.0356) m/s at surface of earth (SI Declared)**

**Value: c _{s} ≈ 299,792,448.19 m/s in deep space (SEEP)**

Status: Computed variable: c= 1/√μ_{0}ε_{0}. Integral in theories such as relativity and quantum mechanics, defining the nature of space and time.

**NOTE:** SI declaration that fixes the value of the speed of light implicitly freezes the values of ε_{0} (permittivity of free space) and μ_{0} (permeability of free space) at the speed of light as measured in the gravitational potential observed at the surface of the Earth. This decision has far-reaching implications, as it effectively ties the fundamental constants ε_{0} and μ_{0} to the local conditions of Earth’s surface.

**Charge Admittance Gv (Gravitational Rate)**

Description: G_{s} represents the rate of gravitational acceleration within the framework of CA, which attributes gravity to changes in the rate of energy propagation in both physical and temporal dimensions.

**Value: Gs ≈**

**near ∞ at event horizon (Swcharzchilds radius) of Black Hole**

**Value: Gs ≈ 9.8021475 m/s ^{2} at the surface of earth.**

**Value: Gs ≈ 0 m/s ^{2} in deep space (SEEP)**

Status: Computed variable: c= 1/√μ_{0}ε_{0}. The value of G_{s} is computed based on changes in the rate of energy propagation, making it a dependent variable within the CA framework. Equivalent gravity, as described by CA, is postulated to arise from alterations in the velocity of energy propagation across spacetime.

The expression G_{v}= -d_{x}/d_{√(ε0μ0).} encapsulates this concept, where G_{v} represents changes in proper time and d_{√(ε0μ0)} denotes variations in the square root of the product of the permittivity and permeability Reasoning: Determined through experimental methods and defined as the ratio of the magnetic permeability of in a vacuum on earth to the electric permittivity a vacuum on earth..

**Y _{0} (The Admittance of Energy-Time**)

Description: The characteristic impedance of free space, representing the intrinsic resistance of a vacuum on earth to the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

Value: **Y _{0} ≈ 0.0026544 ℧ = 2.6544 milliMho**

Status: Computed variable: Y_{0} = √ε_{0}/μ_{0} = 1/Z_{0}. Measured through experiments involving electromagnetism and electromagnetic wave propagation, providing insights into the behavior of electromagnetic fields in vacuum.

**Z _{0} (The Impedance of Energy-Time**)

Description: The characteristic impedance of free space, representing the intrinsic resistance of a vacuum on earth to the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

Value: **Z _{0} ≈ 376.7303137 Ω**

Status: Computed variable: Z_{0} = √μ_{0}/ε_{0}. Determined through experimental methods and defined as the ratio of the magnetic permeability of in a vacuum on earth to the electric permittivity a vacuum on earth.

**μ _{0}/ε_{0} (Impedance ratio at resonance”)**

Description: The ratio of permeability to Permittivity to maintain wave resonance.

Value: μ_{0}/ε_{0} ≈ 141,925.8836 ** NOTE:** the square root of this is 376.703 = **Z _{0}**

Status: Fundamental constant determined by mathematical examination of speed of light versus field factors. This value required to maintain fields at 90 degrees with respect to each other.

At zero degrees tilt (parallel resonance), where the electric and magnetic fields are aligned, the ratio μ0/ε0 tends towards infinity. This alignment leads to conditions of maximum energy storage, as the electric and magnetic fields reinforce each other, resulting in a resonant state. This resonance can have significant implications for energy transmission and wave propagation in specific mediums.

Conversely, at 180 degrees tilt (anti-parallel resonance), where the electric and magnetic fields are opposite in direction, the ratio μ_{0}/ε_{0} tends towards zero. In this configuration, the electric and magnetic fields oppose each other, potentially leading to conditions of minimal energy storage. Understanding these extreme cases of resonance can provide insights into the behavior of electromagnetic waves in different environments and guide the development of novel technologies and applications.

**Note:** This ratio means that traveling in a wave in a resonant field, half of a photon dipole’s energy is in the “past time” according to Lorentz’s “perfect time” concept. This observation highlights the temporal asymmetry inherent in resonant electromagnetic fields, where the distribution of energy between electric and magnetic components can influence the perception of time experienced by energy carriers like photons. Lorentz’s concept of “perfect time” suggests that within a resonant field, a portion of the photon’s energy may reside in what could be considered the “past,” reflecting the complex interplay between electromagnetic phenomena and temporal dynamics. Understanding the temporal aspects of resonant fields provides insights into the fundamental nature of energy-space and the behavior of energy within electromagnetic environments.