Implications for the Age of the Universe

The recent discoveries of galaxies by the James Webb Space Telescope have cast doubt on accepted beliefs and raised the intriguing possibility that the universe may be older than previously thought. A link to a you tube for that page has been removed – my speculation is that it does not agree with the current dogma.

The Variable Speed of Light

Light is a form of electromagnetic (EM) energy, and experiments and applications have shown that the speed of light is variable. Not only is the speed of energy variable as shown by the various techniques to bend or tune it, but this characteristic has been used by billions around the world to tune them for over 100 years. Although it is claimed it is constant in the vacuum of space, there is no provable vacuum of space that is so perfect as to make this claim.

Beyond Limits: Unraveling the Cosmic Speedscape with the Z0 model.

In the vast cosmic expanse, Z0 introduces a profound shift in our understanding of gravity’s influence on the speed of energy. As we extend our gaze to the far reaches of space, envisioning a Pound Rebka experiment conducted in the emptiness described by Einstein, a striking revelation emerges. The observed blue shift, when translated to the waveform’s speed, subtly hints at a true cosmic constant—the speed of energy. Calculated using gravity as the basis, this speed, 299,792,458.16 meters per second, paints a dynamic picture. It suggests that deeper gravity wells, akin to those surrounding black holes, may propel the speed of light even faster. This not only challenges traditional notions but also beckons us to explore the intriguing possibility of ‘Super luminal’ conductors—a new frontier where energy may traverse at velocities beyond the commonly accepted limits. Z0 invites us to reexamine the fabric of the universe, opening doors to unforeseen phenomena and pushing the boundaries of our cosmic comprehension.

Gravitational Microlensing

Gravitational microlensing is a phenomenon predicted by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, where the gravitational field of a massive object, such as a star or a planet, acts as a lens, bending and magnifying the light from a more distant background source. This effect occurs when the foreground object passes in front of the background source, aligning along the observer’s line of sight. As a result, the light from the background source is temporarily amplified, creating a characteristic brightening of the source’s brightness curve.

Gravitational microlensing has several key features:

Massive Object as Lens: The foreground object, usually a star or a planet, acts as a gravitational lens due to its massive gravitational field.

Alignment: For gravitational microlensing to occur, the foreground object must pass precisely between the observer and the background source, aligning along the observer’s line of sight.

Light Amplification: As the light from the background source passes near the gravitational field of the foreground object, it is bent and focused towards the observer. This bending results in a temporary increase in the brightness of the background source, which can last from days to months, depending on the relative motion of the lensing object.

Magnification Curve: The observed brightening of the background source’s light is characterized by a distinct magnification curve, which shows the evolution of the source’s brightness over time. This curve provides valuable information about the properties of the lensing object, such as its mass and distance.

Gravitational microlensing has emerged as a powerful tool in astrophysics for studying a wide range of astronomical phenomena, including the detection of exoplanets, probing the structure of galaxies and galaxy clusters, and even searching for dark matter. Observatories like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) play a crucial role in detecting and studying gravitational microlensing events, offering insights into the nature of the universe and the distribution of matter within it.

Variations in the Impedance of Space

The speed of light is typically constant in a vacuum, but the presence of objects such as stars, planets, asteroids, comets, dust, hydrogen, and other energy sources in space can introduce slight variations in the impedance of space. These variations could potentially influence the speed of energy, causing it to decrease.

Peak gravity is delayed from alignment during solar eclipse

Peak gravity for a solar eclipse occurs 40 seconds after perihelion, suggesting a delay in Earth’s gravitational attraction.

Gravitational lensing as a cause of redshift

Gravitational lensing and minute structural differences seem to suggest that energy influences energy. likewise The Shapiro delay implies that enormous cosmic structures slow down the flow of energy.

Implications for Quantization and Speed

Observations suggest that the medium through which energy propagates influences the speed of light. In exploring these observations, it becomes apparent that there are three distinct divisions of characteristics within the energy spectrum: electromagnetic, particle, and quantum.

Implications for the speed and apparent effectivity of gravity

The fact that gravity appears instantaneous implies that it is not a force related to distant objects but the field established by the influence of faraway objects, either their energy or matter.

Antennas and the Significance of Impedance

In the construction of directional antennas like the Yagi antenna, conductors are strategically positioned to modify the impedance profile, directing electromagnetic (EM) waves in desired directions. Notably, the effectiveness of these antennas is primarily determined by the length of the conductors. Their mass doesn’t matter.


For a system to exist it must have more than one functional unit of the same or similar characteristics which have characteristics which operate in conjunction.

For gravitational systems, there must be, at least, a pair of elements operating together.

In a system with two or more elements which operate in conjunction resonances will occur.

Observations and the Role of the Medium

Every system exhibits a ‘first jerk,’ which is the minimum displacement that occurs when energy is applied to a system. This observation suggests that the medium through which energy propagates plays a crucial role in determining the speed of light. Light with lower frequencies, possessing less energy or equivalent mass, is easier to deflect, indicating that the medium influences its propagation. The observation that different masses appear to fall at the same rate in gravity hints at a fundamental equality transcending specific objects, pointing toward the medium or field as a controlling factor.


These numerous findings and observations broaden our comprehension of gravity and energy. They contend that gravity may be an emergent characteristic of energy rather than a basic force in and of itself. These data show that the relationship between gravity and energy affects the propagation of energy in numerous ways, which affects phenomena like galaxy formation and the age of the universe. These findings cast doubt on accepted hypotheses and highlight the need to reevaluate our understanding of the fundamental principles governing the universe.

Science that supports observations is more likely to be correct. Science that is based on theories that cannot be supported by observation, such as the constancy of the speed of light, are suspect.