A significant portion of the thoughts that form the foundation of The Quantum Admittance Theory emerged from the depths of the author’s mind. These thoughts were a culmination of processes intricately linked to the author’s experiences. However, not all ideas instantly crystallized; some required time to come into clear focus. The process involved sifting through previous hypotheses, identifying and removing errors or hasty judgments. It was a journey of dedicated study and meticulous revision, leading to the refinement of the theory.

**Mind Experiment: Reconceptualizing Gravity Without Space**

In this study, we examine the nature of gravity by reframing the traditional understanding, eliminating space as a fundamental component and focusing solely on time and energy. The proposition arises: Is gravity a consequence of changes in the interval of time passage, or does it stem from alterations in the speed of energy moving through time? Through rigorous analysis, we investigate the mechanisms underlying these two perspectives, considering their implications and practical applications. Our findings suggest that changes in the speed of energy, governed by parameters such as permeability (ε_{0}) and permittivity (μ_{0}), may provide a more robust explanation for gravitational effects. This paradigm shift challenges conventional assumptions and offers new insights into the fundamental nature of gravity.

In conventional physics, gravity is often conceptualized in the context of mass bending space-time. In this scenario energy is only along for the ride. Based on the observation that energy is also affected by gravity, we deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying gravitational effects. This study aims to explore two competing hypotheses: changes in the interval of time passage versus alterations in the speed of energy moving through time:

* Hypothesis 1:* Gravity arises from changes in the interval of time passage, wherein alterations in the temporal metric lead to gravitational effects.

* Hypothesis 2:* Gravity is a consequence of changes in the speed of energy moving through time, regulated by parameters such as permeability (ε0) and permittivity (μ0).

We employ a theoretical approach, drawing upon principles from classical physics and electromagnetism to investigate the mechanisms underlying gravitational effects. By considering the implications of each hypothesis and examining experimental evidence, we aim to discern the most plausible explanation for the observed phenomena.

Through rigorous analysis and theoretical considerations, we clarify the fundamental nature of gravity as being solely due to the speed of energy.

Our analysis suggests that changes in the speed of energy, as governed by parameters such as ε_{0} and μ_{0}, offer a more compelling explanation for gravitational effects than changes in the interval of time passage. Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the notion that alterations in the speed of energy flow through time may manifest as gravitational phenomena.

In conclusion, our study sheds light on the mechanisms underlying gravitational effects, proposing that changes in the speed of energy moving through time may be a fundamental determinant of gravitational phenomena. By eliminating space from the equation, we offer a new perspective on gravity and pave the way for future research in this field.

**As for space, it is the result of gravity changing the vector of energy travel, not the cause of it.**

**Mind Experiment: Instantaneous Fields and the Speed of Gravity**

Imagine a universe governed by the principles of QA. In this universe, gravity behaves in a way that challenges our classical understanding. Here, we’ll conduct a thought experiment to explore the concept of instantaneous fields and the speed of gravity within QA.

**A Star is Born:** In a distant corner of this universe, a massive star collapses under its own gravity, giving birth to a black hole. This dramatic event instantly creates a gravitational field around the newly formed black hole, **compressing the μ _{0}ε_{0} field in its vicinity** according to the specific postulates of Theory QA. One such postulate relates the Z

_{0}field (denoted by Z

_{0}) to energy concentration (denoted by E) through the equation ∂Z

_{0}/ ∂E = -k*E. (A more detailed explanation of this equation can be found in the QA mathematics link).

**A Star is Born:** In a distant corner of this universe, a massive star collapses under its own gravity, giving birth to a black hole. This dramatic event instantly creates a gravitational field around the newly formed black hole, **compressing the μ _{0}ε_{0} field in its vicinity** according to the specific postulates of Theory QA. One such postulate relates the Z

_{0}field (denoted by Z

_{0}) to energy concentration (denoted by E) through the equation ∂Z

_{0}/ ∂E = -k*E. (A more detailed explanation of this equation can be found in the QA mathematics link).

Instantaneous Distortion: According to Quantum Admittance, the gravitational field surrounding the black hole is established immediately. This distortion of the energy-time fabric propagates outward at the speed of light (c), as regulated by the μ_{0}ε_{0} field as shown by Maxwell’s equation **c = 1/√μ _{0}ε_{0}. **

A Spaceship on a Course: Unbeknownst to the catastrophic event, a lone spaceship travels through this region of space. The crew is completely unaware of the black hole’s formation, as no signal or information about the event could have reached them yet.

The Delayed Pull: Now, here’s the twist. While the gravitational field itself is established instantaneously, the effects of this field, such as the gravitational pull, propagate outward at the speed of light (c). This means there’s a crucial delay.

Feeling the Squeeze: After a period of time determined by the distance between the spaceship and the black hole (divided by the speed of light), the crew onboard the spaceship will start to feel the immense gravitational pull of the newly formed black hole. This is the moment the effects of the instantaneous field reach them, altering their trajectory and potentially endangering their mission.

The Implications: This thought experiment highlights the intriguing concept of instantaneous fields in QA. While the gravitational field itself seems to act instantaneously, its influence on objects propagates outward at a finite speed, showcasing the limitations of information transfer even within the fabric of spacetime.

**Mind Experiment: The Quantum Caper: A Slice of Science Fiction**

Imagine a world where pizza isn’t just about deliciousness, but also entangled in the mysteries of quantum mechanics. In this culinary version of Schrödinger’s cat, we have not one, but two slices – pepperoni and sausage – eternally linked by an invisible thread. One slice exists in a state of superposition, both pepperoni and sausage at the same time, until a hungry observer (you!) opens the fridge and collapses the wave function, revealing the true topping.

But the story doesn’t end there. Enter Heisenberg, a mischievous black cat with a penchant for quantum shenanigans. As you open the fridge, Heisenberg, ever the curious observer, witnesses the pizza. Does this observation instantly determine the fate of one slice, causing the other to vanish due to entanglement? Or is there more to the story?

Here’s where things get interesting. Imagine flinging Heisenberg (don’t worry, this is a thought experiment!) and him defying gravity with a playful mid-air wave. This seemingly innocent gesture, however, might hold the key. In the bizarre world of quantum mechanics, the act of observation can collapse a wave function. Could Heisenberg’s wave, a conscious acknowledgment of the entangled pizza, be the very act that collapses the superposition?

Here’s where things get interesting. Imagine flinging Heisenberg (don’t worry, this is a thought experiment!) and him defying gravity with a playful mid-air wave. This seemingly innocent gesture, however, might hold the key. In the bizarre world of quantum mechanics, the act of observation can collapse a wave function. Could Heisenberg’s wave, a conscious acknowledgment of the entangled pizza, be the very act that collapses the superposition?

The Takeaway (with a Sprinkle of Humor):

This whimsical thought experiment isn’t meant to be a scientific treatise on flinging cats (though we highly advise against it!). It’s a lighthearted exploration of how complex ideas like quantum mechanics and Quantum Admittance can be re-framed using familiar concepts like pizza and curious cats. It’s a reminder that science can be fun, surprising, and sometimes downright strange, just like the perfect slice of pizza (with or without a side of quantum entanglement).

**Mind Experiment: The Elevator of Time**

Imagine that time can be visualized as an elevator—a timeless elevator—that steadily ascends along the timeline, perpetually moving forward without pause. In this analogy, we, the observers, stand upon the floor of this infinite elevator, experiencing the passage of time as a continuous progression. The elevator floor extends infinitely in the x, y, and z dimensions, providing a stable platform upon which all physical entities and objects exist and move.

As we journey along this temporal elevator, events unfold before us in a seamless sequence, mirroring our intuitive understanding of time’s progression. However, unlike a conventional elevator, our perception of time’s passage is not accompanied by any noticeable spatial movement. Instead, we remain stationary within the elevator, while time itself carries us forward along its unending trajectory.

Now, consider the curious case of an electric charge that manages to penetrate the temporal barrier, emerging from a distant epoch to briefly interact with our present moment. Upon entering the elevator of time, this charge disturbs the flux field of forward-moving time, creating a ripple effect that propagates outward at the speed of light. This disturbance manifests as a pressure wave within the temporal fabric, akin to a ripple spreading across the surface of a calm pond..

Conversely, as the charge departs back into the depths of time, a void is left in its wake—a temporal vacuum that exerts a reverse pressure on the surrounding temporal fabric. This retrograde force, traveling backward along the timeline, seeks to fill the void left by the departing charge, restoring temporal equilibrium.

**Here lies the crux of the matter: is it the pressure that adjusts to accommodate the difference, or is it time itself that undergoes a subtle transformation in response to the disturbance?** This fundamental question lies at the heart of our investigation into the nature of time and its interactions with the fabric of reality.

In this way, the passage of the charge through the elevator of time creates a dynamic interplay between forward and backward pressure waves, shaping the temporal landscape in their wake. This phenomenon hints at the intricate relationship between time and electromagnetism, offering a tantalizing glimpse into the underlying structure of the universe.

Through this mind experiment, we gain new insights into the nature of time and its interactions with the fabric of reality. This elevator of time serves as a metaphorical framework for understanding temporal dynamics and exploring the subtle nuances of temporal mechanics. As we delve deeper into the mysteries of time, we may uncover profound truths about the fundamental nature of existence itself.

**Mind Experiment: The Steady Plane of Time**

**Setup:**

Imagine ourselves as observers traversing the infinite plane of time, akin to passengers on an elevator steadily ascending along its axis. Our direction of observation aligns with the axis of time, allowing us to perceive events unfolding in front of us and behind us with clarity and consistency.

Additionally, consider the direction of entities entering our perceptual field. These entities, such as charged particles, must adhere to their perception of time, which is constrained within a cone angled at 45 degrees relative to our perpendicular direction. Any entities entering at angles below this threshold remain beyond our observable range, confined within their cone of time perception.

Furthermore, our observations reveal a remarkable consistency across all directions. The fine structure constant, a fundamental parameter governing electromagnetic interactions, remains stable regardless of our orientation in space-time. This stability suggests that fluctuations or modulations in the passage of time do not manifest in our observations, indicating a uniform and uninterrupted flow of time along its axis.

**Experiment:**

As we journey through this temporal landscape, we maintain a constant velocity, unaffected by fluctuations or modulations in the passage of time. Despite the dynamic nature of the universe surrounding us, our observations remain consistent, with no discernible variations in the rate of time’s progression.

Through this mind experiment, we explore the notion of a steady plane of time, where our journey unfolds without interruption or distortion, providing a framework for understanding the fundamental nature of temporal progression.

**Mind Experiment: Insights into Quantum Charge Propagation Across the Mirror of Time**

In this theoretical exploration, we delve into the dynamics of charge propagation across the metaphorical “mirror of time,” a conceptual boundary between visible and unseen dimensions. Through a series of thought experiments, we investigate the implications of instantaneous and finite-speed charge propagation, shedding light on fundamental aspects of electromagnetism and temporal dynamics.

**Instantaneous Propagation:**

*Hypothesis:* The hypothesis posits that changes in charge pressure propagate instantaneously across the mirror of time, ** in the near field,** influencing the entire spatial domain within that field simultaneously.

*Implications:* This scenario suggests that in an open space beyond the mirror, charge pressure dissipates infinitely, preventing the return of the charge. Equilibrium is maintained with balanced charge pressures on both sides of the mirror.

*Potential Relevance:* Raises questions about the nature of charge propagation and its relation to spatial dimensions beyond human perception, hinting at underlying principles governing the dynamics of charge equilibrium.

**Finite Speed:**

*Hypothesis:* Charge pressure propagates at a finite speed, ** beyond the near field,** leading to the formation of pressure waves that affect the distribution of charge on both sides of the mirror.

*Implications:* Vector patterns emerge in charge distribution, influenced by the speed of charge propagation and the rate of magnetic flux. Equilibrium is achieved through dynamic interactions between charge pressures.

*Potential Relevance:* Suggests a nuanced understanding of charge dynamics and the emergence of field patterns in response to propagating pressure waves, offering insights into fundamental principles governing electromagnetism

**Exploring μ0/ε0 Ratio:**

The ratio of μ0/ε0, representing the speed of light as a fundamental constant, provides valuable insights into the relationship between electromagnetic properties of space. Investigating how this ratio influences energy patterns and field configurations, particularly in resonant systems, could yield valuable theoretical insights into the underlying mechanisms governing charge dynamics.

**Integration with Gravitational Concepts:**

The notion of charge seeking equilibrium across the mirror of time introduces intriguing parallels with concepts of gravitational attraction, hinting at potential connections between electromagnetism and gravity at fundamental scales. Further exploration of this intersection could provide deeper insights into the underlying unity of fundamental forces.

**Mind Experiment: Journey through the galactic impedance gradient.**

Imagine embarking on a journey through a universe where only one galaxy exists, surrounded by the vast expanse of empty space. In this thought experiment, we delve into the implications of the impedance gradient within this solitary galaxy.

You find yourself at the center of the galaxy, the black hole, where gravitational forces exert their strongest influence. Here, spacetime appears smooth and undisturbed, allowing for stable orbits and a sense of cosmic tranquility. As you venture outward from the galactic core towards the edges of the galaxy, you begin to encounter variations in spacetime impedance. The once serene environment gives way to a complex interplay of gravitational fields, stars, gas clouds, and dark matter.

Near-Zero Impedance at the Galactic Center: At the heart of the galaxy, you experience a sense of calmness, where spacetime impedance is minimal. Stars and celestial bodies orbit the galactic nucleus in graceful arcs at their highest speeds.

Increasing Impedance towards the Galactic Edges: Moving outward, you observe a gradual increase in spacetime impedance. Gravitational effects become less pronounced, shaping the galactic landscape and influencing the flow of cosmic matter.

Lorentzian Time and Impedance: As you traverse through regions of varying impedance, you notice fluctuations in the speed of energy which may be seen as changes in the passage of time. In areas of varying impedance, time dilation or contraction occurs, reflecting the intricate interplay between gravity and spacetime curvature.

Observational Insights: Along your journey, you encounter intriguing phenomena such as gravitational lensing, where energy density distorts the light from distant objects, offering glimpses into the underlying gravitational contours of the galaxy.

It becomes apparent that either end of this impedance poles, the black hole or open space are the basis for termination of the tapered impedance of space, both resulting in reflected energy, one seen inverted and the other seen amplified.

This mind experiment invites contemplation of the intricate impedance gradient within a single galaxy universe, highlighting the rich interplay between gravity, spacetime geometry, and cosmic structure. Through exploration and imagination, we gain deeper insights into the fundamental properties of the cosmos and the wonders of the galactic tapestry.

**Mind experiment**: **The “tilt” of the fabric of space sets the speed of energy.**

Imagine the ε_{0}μ_{0} fields as a kind of fabric underlying space. Normally, they resonate or “tilt” in a specific way, creating a stable environment. Now, when a massless photon (like a particle of light) enters this space, it’s like a surfer catching a wave. The photon instantly matches its speed to the tilt of the fabric, riding along at the speed dictated by this tilt.

In simpler terms, it’s like the photon quickly adapts to the underlying conditions of space, allowing it to travel at a specific speed determined by the “tilt” of the ε_{0}μ_{0} fields. This concept provides a fresh perspective on how light moves through space, emphasizing the dynamic relationship between photons and the underlying fabric of the universe.Imagine the ε_{0}μ_{0} fields as a kind of fabric underlying space. Normally, they resonate or “tilt” in a specific way, creating a stable environment. Now, when a massless photon (like a particle of light) enters this space, it’s like a surfer catching a wave. The photon instantly matches its speed to the tilt of the fabric, riding along at the speed dictated by this tilt.

**Mind Experiment: Toroidal Spin, Quantum States, and Information Encoding**

Consider the enigmatic toroid, a cosmic dancer in the quantum realm. Picture it spinning, its path a mystical dance of uncertainty. Now, imagine this toroid not as a fixed entity, but as a versatile storyteller encoding information in its dynamic twists and turns.

In this mind experiment, toroidal spin becomes a quantum narrative, a representation of infinite possibilities. When opened at a specific point, its angular dance reveals a connection between that moment and the vast expanse of its circular journey. It’s akin to decoding a cosmic message, where the toroid’s spin holds the key to understanding the intricate tapestry of quantum states.

As the toroid spins round and round, it becomes a metaphorical Qbit, embodying the essence of uncertainty and potentiality. When disrupted by an arc, it transforms into a non-linear symphony of impedance changes, generating myriad sidebands. This celestial dance, caught between creation and disruption, offers a glimpse into the mysterious realm where information and quantum states intertwine.

**Mind experiment**: **The average energy in the universe is ZERO.**

The law of conservation of energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another. This law has been experimentally verified many times, and it is one of the most fundamental laws of physics. One way to think about the law of conservation of energy is to say that the total energy of the universe is always constant. This means that the sum of the energy of all matter and energy in the universe must always be the same.

Then consider that the energy in the universe is ZERO. This means that half of the energy or mass in the universe exists on the other side of “quantum”, the -1/2 side, so to speak.

However, what if there is a side of the universe that we cannot see or interact with? What if this side of the universe contains negative energy? If this is the case, then the total energy of the universe could still be zero, even though there are localized volumes of positive energy (matter) and negative energy.

**Analogy: Photon spin as the strongman and the sledgehammer.**

Imagine a strongman trying to impress at an arcade game. He needs to hit a target with a sledgehammer with enough force to send a striker high enough to ring a bell. The faster the head of the sledgehammer is swinging, the more energy it carries.

This is analogous to the relationship between the energy and spin of a photon. The faster a photon spins, the more energy it has.

However, there is one important difference between the strongman and the photon. The strongman needs to expend energy to increase the speed of the sledgehammer. The photon, on the other hand, does not need to expend energy to increase its spin rate but rather decrease its axis (moment arm). This is because the energy of a photon is contained in its spin. The faster a photon spins, the more energy it is concentrated in time.

The gradient of the speed of energy will create a force. This is because the force on a charged particle is equal to the product of the charge and the electric field. The electric field is equal to the gradient of the potential energy. The potential energy of a charged particle is equal to the product of the charge and the potential. The potential is equal to the negative of the integral of the electric field along a route. Therefore, the force on a charged particle is equal to the product of the charge and the negative of the integral of the gradient of the potential energy along a path.

There are similarities between the force of gravity and the force produced by the energy speed gradient. This is because the force of gravity and the potential energy gradient are both proportionate.

**Mind experiment**: **The radio modulation analogy.**

Imagine the transmission of information through radio waves, where a signal is modulated onto a carrier frequency, occupying a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This process generates sidebands above and below the carrier frequency, akin to the modulation of energy passing through impedance changes.

In amplitude modulation (AM), the carrier signal’s sidebands are essentially its Fourier transforms, reflecting changes in the original signal when interacting with the carrier signal. This concept aligns with the production of redshift and blueshift sidebands as energy encounters variations in amplitude.

Comparably, in frequency modulation (FM), a multitude of sidebands is generated, much like the complex effects observed during gravitational lensing. The stretching and warping of waves around massive objects create a diverse spectrum, challenging the measurement of a single frequency due to the dynamic nature of gravitational interactions, especially in regions dense with celestial bodies.

**Mind experiment**: **Energy equilibrium and entropy.**

The universe is a vast and complex system, made up of a vast array of energy fields. These energy fields are constantly interacting with each other, forming a delicate balance of forces. This balance is known as **equilibrium**.

Entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system. In a system with high entropy, the energy is distributed randomly. In a system with low entropy, the energy is more concentrated.

The **second law of thermodynamics** states that the entropy of an isolated system always increases over time. This means that the universe is constantly becoming more disordered.

However, the universe is not completely disordered. There are pockets of order, such as stars and galaxies. These pockets of order are maintained by **Lorentz forces**. Lorentz forces are the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that act between charged particles and masses.

The dance of entropy and energy equilibrium is a complex and ever-changing process. But one thing is certain: the universe is constantly evolving, and entropy is always on the rise.

**Mind experiment**: **Planck scale energy fields**.

Think of the Planck Scale Energy Fields as a realm where electromagnetic energy waves travel through the ε_{0}μ_{0} field. This field’s impedance, which is determined by density, plays a key role. As the impedance changes, it affects the amplitude of the energy waves. This alteration in amplitude, in turn, affects the length of the path the waves follow and the time they take to traverse it.

It’s important to note that the energy waves themselves don’t speed up or slow down. Instead, they take shorter or longer routes, somewhat like a race car choosing between lanes in traffic. This results in what we perceive as “equivalent” gravity—a fascinating phenomenon. Imagine it as a mesmerizing dance of energy waves gracefully moving through the ε_{0}μ_{0} field, with impedance as their unseen choreographer. These waves’ amplitudes ebb and flow like a cosmic ballet, shaping their paths and time of travel, giving rise to the enchanting effect we call “equivalent” gravity.

**Mind experiment**: **The photon racetrack.**

Imagine a photon racing around a track, much like a car on a racetrack. As the photons bunch up around a curve, some of them must take a higher path to navigate the turn. This does not mean that the photons are slowing down, but to an observer, it may appear that way.

Similarly, when energy is deflected, it can produce similar phenomena. Some photons may appear slower due to this effect, even though their speeds remain the same. This is because the photons are taking a longer path to get to their destination.

**Mind experiment**: **The speed of electrons vs. the speed of energy**.

Understanding the velocity of energy propagation within a conductor’s dielectric medium is not only fundamental to electrical engineering but also holds profound implications for comprehending the intricate dance between electric fields, electromagnetic waves, and the underlying physics governing the flow of electric charge. These phenomena pivot around the intricate interactions between electric and magnetic fields and the unique characteristics of the medium through which they traverse.

In the realm of a standard electrical circuit, when a potential difference, or voltage, is applied across a conductor, it engenders an electric field that extends along the conductor’s length. This electric field wields its influence upon the free electrons residing within the conductor, compelling them into motion. These dynamic electrons collectively constitute what we recognize as electric current. However, it is crucial to discern that while these electrons epitomize the current, it is the force associated with charge displacement along the conductor’s path that dictates the speed of propagation, fundamentally steering the generation of magnetic fields.

Now, let’s delve into the intriguing concept of the local environment’s permeability (μ) and its impact on this process. Permeability, in essence, quantifies how readily a material succumbs to magnetization when subjected to the presence of a magnetic field. In the vast expanse of free space, often described as a vacuum, the permeability remains a steadfast constant, denoted as μ₀, with a precisely defined value. However, in the presence of other materials, particularly those of the ferromagnetic ilk, μ can surge significantly beyond the confines of μ₀.

Enter the local environment surrounding the conductor—an environment that may house materials boasting elevated permeability. This localized circumstance can exert a tangible influence upon the propagation of both electric and magnetic fields, leading to a spectrum of intriguing effects:

*Magnetic Field Augmentation:* As an electrical current courses through the conductor, it orchestrates the emergence of a magnetic field encircling it, a phenomenon elegantly described by Ampère’s law. When the nearby environment exhibits high permeability, this magnetic field gains augmented strength, fostering intensified magnetic interactions within the medium.

*Alterations in Inductance: *In the intricate domain of electrical circuits, inductance symbolizes a conductor’s capacity to store energy within a magnetic field. This pivotal property can be swayed by the permeability of adjacent materials. Heightened permeability has the potential to amplify inductance, potentially resulting in the deceleration of fluctuations in electric current.

*Nuances in Energy Propagation:* The complex interplay between electric and magnetic fields, guided by the permeability factor, wields a discernible impact on the trajectory of energy as it traverses the conductor’s dielectric medium. This intricate interplay might introduce variations in the speed of energy transmission, revealing hitherto uncharted dynamics.

*Implications for Energy Efficiency:* Materials characterized by elevated permeability can introduce inefficiencies into the system through phenomena such as hysteresis and eddy currents. These energy losses might substantially influence the overall efficiency of energy transmission processes.

Incorporating the concept of permeability holds the potential to further illuminate the core mechanisms and mathematical underpinnings of the QA model. The exploration of these intriguing phenomena underscores the ever-unfolding mysteries of the physical world, inviting us to continually expand the horizons of our knowledge.

**Mind experiment**: **Breakdown voltage and ARC creation.**

An ARC, in this context, refers to the electrical phenomenon of arcing between two conductive materials separated by a gaseous medium. Just think about it: If the vacuum of space were perfect, meaning it contains absolutely nothing, there would be nothing in it for an ARC (Arcing) to be created. The absence of any matter or gas would render the breakdown voltage infinite, as there would be no conducting path for the electrical discharge.

This idea of a perfect vacuum in space raises intriguing questions and parallels the concept of the “ultraviolet catastrophe” in physics. The ultraviolet catastrophe refers to a problem in classical physics where it was predicted that a black body at thermal equilibrium should emit an infinite amount of energy, which clearly does not happen in reality. This paradox was eventually resolved with the advent of quantum mechanics.

Similarly, the notion that the vacuum of space could be “perfect” raises intriguing implications for our understanding of the physical world. Despite being an absence of matter and particles, a perfect vacuum could still have limitations and consequences, challenging our conventional understanding of nothingness.

While the concept of a perfect vacuum may appear abstract, it has real-world significance in fields like cosmology, quantum physics, and electrical engineering. As we explore and study the vast expanse of space, delving into the nature of a perfect vacuum could unravel fascinating insights into the fundamental fabric of the universe.

**Mind experiment**: **Redshift due to photon stretch in gravitational lensing.**

Imagine a photon, a fundamental unit of electromagnetic energy, traveling through the vast expanse of space. With QA, this seemingly simple journey is not without its fascinating intricacies. As the photon encounters changes in energy field density, its path is subtly altered, bending in response to the local gravitational forces. Within the heart of the photon, the charges that make up its structure are in a constant state of motion, spinning at the limit of the real speed of charge, which is inherently linked to the wavelength of the photon. As the photon encounters regions of varying energy field density, its polarity and rotational position play a crucial role in its behavior. The photon is stretched, causing the wavelength to elongate, akin to a rubber band being pulled. This stretching, or “redshift,” is a direct consequence of the photon’s interaction with the changing energy landscape, resulting in an observable shift in its frequency. Just as a rubber band cools when stretched, the photon experiences a “cooling” effect explaining its redshift. This simple yet profound “Mind Experiment” sheds light on the intricate relationship between energy, gravity, and the behavior of photons, offering a captivating glimpse into the profound nature of the cosmos as envisaged in QA.

**Mind experiment**: **The transmission line in space.**

In the vast expanse of space, the impedance of space, Z_{0}, acts as a transmission line, allowing energy to smoothly propagate through open space. Just like a transmission line that has imperfections, space’s impedance can be affected, altering the velocity factor—the speed at which energy travels through it. However, this change in speed doesn’t lead entirely to energy loss. Instead, it results in the development of sidebands that disperse energy away from the central carrier frequency. The fascinating part is that this change in speed acts as a force on the energy, akin to gravity’s relationship with E=mc^{2}.

In the vastness of space, the impedance of an open line causes energy to reflect and sometimes even invert its signal. A remarkable example of this is the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which presents a relative uniformity that prevents us from discerning its age or phase, making it challenging to determine its source distance. Due to its uniformity, it appears to be seen from a nearly uniform distance. The incident discontinuity at the edge of our galaxy might offer some intriguing insights.

Of importance in space over a transmission line like a coax, the transmission of energy in space is not confined to a conduit. It is open to spreading over areas.

**Mind experiment**: **Tapered wires space analogy.**

Imagine a scenario with a pair of conductors that are tapered to establish a varying impedance, for example, 72 to 450 ohms, a common range of impedance for wire pairs. Then place a charge on the wires as though they were plates on a capacitor.

As the impedance between the wires varies, charges will concentrate on wires nearer the region of the lowest impedance (nearest spacing). This is because they are attracted to regions near their opposite charges. Furthermore, the same polarity charges will spread out in a uniform taper along their wire due to the repelling forces.

The tapered wires can be used to create a gradient in the speed of energy. This is because the Z_{0} of a tapered transmission line is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the line. Therefore, the speed of energy will be higher in regions where the cross-sectional area of the line is smaller.

**Experiment: Floating magnets**

Take several small permanent magnets and attach them to cork disks. Place these disks in a Pyrex dish filled with water, allowing them to float in separate locations. Over time, the magnets will gradually come together, with the closer ones moving first. Eventually, they will form a single line, aligning with the Earth’s magnetic field. This experiment showcases the attractive nature of magnets governed by the inverse square law.

A similar pattern emerges with charges on plates or capacitors. The inverse square law ensures that when repelling nodes are closest to each other, they turn away, resulting in the attracting ends becoming closer. In the realm of electromagnetism, attraction always prevails.

This principle holds true for both magnetic flux in ferrous metal and the permeability of free space (μ_{0}), as well as for charges on plates and the permittivity of free space (ε_{0}). If magnetic fields attract, it follows that the magnetic components of an EM wave also attract. Similarly, if charge fields attract, the charges within an EM wave exhibit mutual attraction.

Within a dipole, the concept of attraction is further elucidated. The opposing forces exert pressure on the middle of the dipole, counterbalanced by the centripetal force generated by the rotating charges. This interplay determines the diameter of the dipole structure.

By understanding the nature of attraction in electromagnetism, we gain insights into the dynamics and behaviors of electromagnetic energy. The inherent tendency of EM energy to attract allows for the manipulation and utilization of this force in various applications and technologies.

**Analogy: Hydraulic gravity flow.**

Postulate: Mass does not change the rate of gravity flow – from Galileo.

The Manning formula is an empirical formula used to estimate the average velocity of a liquid flowing through a conduit that does not entirely contain the liquid, i.e., an open channel. In this example, the roughness, surface area, and slope of the conduit are typically taken into account to determine flow.

The “open conduit” says that the pressure at each end of the flow does not matter. The only pressure is the pressure of the liquid at the point of observation. This can be shown if the source supply and the receiving basin are km away from that point. The velocity of the flow of a liquid is independent of either the source or the destination. The only contribution they involve is the amount of flow or volume, which may affect the height of the flow at the observation point.

The gravitational potential energy of the fluid is dependent on the slope of the conduit. The fluid’s friction fights against the flow and slows it down. The equilibrium between gravitational potential energy and friction controls the rate of flow. The slope of the conduit and the friction of the fluid are unaffected by the level, mass, or pressure head of the source. As a result, it has no impact on the flow rate in an open conduit. This is in line with Galileo’s finding that, in the absence of air resistance, mass has no impact on the rate of descent.

Using this analogy to energy, we have energy as the fluid, impedance as the friction, and slope as the rate of change of the impedance. Energy can be thought of as a fluid that flows through space and time. The impedance of space-time determines the resistance to the flow of energy. The slope of the space-time gradient determines the rate of change of the impedance.

Applying this to equilibrium, consider that the upstream source and downstream basin are on a balance, like a balance scale. The greater the difference in weight, the more the conduit slopes. If they weigh the same, the balance is level, and there is no flow. The slope of the conduit is affected by the relative masses of the two basins.

The height difference between the upstream source and downstream basin: the greater the height difference, the greater the gravitational potential energy difference and the stronger the force driving the flow. The length and roughness of the conduit: the longer and rougher the conduit, the greater the friction and the stronger the force opposing the flow. The viscosity of the fluid affects the friction and the pressure difference between the upstream and downstream ends of the conduit. Now consider that the viscosity of the fluid is the charge, and the roughness is the magnetic flux field it must generate when it moves through. We have now tied this to ε_{0} and μ_{0}. We have created a mechanism for gravity that is compatible with general relativity by changing one parameter and then unifying it with classical physics using e=mc^{2} and Maxwell.