Quantum Admittance (QA) theory initially set out to find the mechanistic basis for gravity. Its underlying theories revealed answers to pending questions including duality, entanglement, the fine structure constant, the quantization of gravity, and anomalies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Hypotheses for these using QA follow:

**Gathering Forces**

Understanding the mechanism behind gathering forces, QA offers insights into how matter and energy come together to form structures in the universe. These forces can be explained by the interaction of energy and impedance gradients, resulting in the accumulation and organization of matter.

**Quantization of Gravity**

QA addresses the quantization of gravity by recognizing that the impedance of space, which governs the speed of weightless photons, serves as the foundation of the theory. In this framework, gravity is fundamentally connected to the energy of photons due to the grid in the μ_{0}ε_{0} fields, aligning with the principles of Planck’s constant. This understanding, using “quantized photons,” forms the basis for the quantization of gravity. Considering the quantization of mass and the relationship expressed by Einstein’s equation E=mc^{2} it follows that energy must also be quantized. Thus, the quantization of gravity can be understood in terms of the quantization of energy.

**Unification of forces**

The four fundamental forces of the universe are the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, the electromagnetic force, and gravity. The underlying mechanisms for these forces are not yet fully understood, but they exhibit some similarities in their patterns.

The “Unification of Gravity and the Four Forces” conjecture explores the fundamental nature of forces in the physical universe, proposing that they may be unified. The QA Theory posits that the electromagnetic forces and the gravitational force are two sides of the same coin. The electromagnetic forces play a central role in the organization of energy fields, creating gradients that facilitate the acceleration of energy, forming the basis of equivalent gravity.

The interplay of near-field and far-field concepts allows for an understanding of how these forces operate across varying ranges. In the near field, the strong nuclear force is dominant, but it quickly weakens at longer distances.

The possibility of the Strong Nuclear force being associated with very low impedance states (-j or mirrored) presents an intriguing speculation, potentially linking this force to specific conditions within the complex (-j) near field. The Weak Nuclear force, situated at the edge of the near and far fields, could be considered as “loosely coupled” inductor-like behavior, suggesting a unique interplay between different energy domains.

The unification of the four forces is a challenging proposition, but it is one that has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the universe. By exploring the interconnections between these forces, the mechanisms that govern their behaviors, and the potential unifying principles that tie them together, we may be able to gain new insights into the fundamental fabric of energy and particles.

**Mechanism for Planck’s Constant and Resolution of the Ultraviolet Catastrophe**

Within the framework of Quantum Admittance (QA) Theory, both the mechanism for Planck’s constant and the resolution of the Ultraviolet Catastrophe are explained by the behavior of quantum dipoles. The spin of the quantum dipole governs the magnetic field’s duration and correlates with the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation. When the spin rate exceeds the dipole’s physical length, it dissociates from the dipole size, limiting the energy density. This results in a mismatch between the radiation impedance and the impedance of space, reducing the energy output.

This understanding addresses the Ultraviolet Catastrophe by establishing a natural limit to energy density at high frequencies, preventing the predicted infinite energy output of classical models. Simultaneously, it provides a mechanism for the observed value of Planck’s constant, arising from the quantum interaction between dipole spin and radiative impedance.

**Fine Structure Constant**

The fine structure constant, denoted by α (alpha), quantifies the strength of electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. It is shown by the split spectral spectrum of energy observed radiating from molecules.

When electrons undergo transitions between energy states within a molecule, such as in an LED, they experience changes in impedance gradients. The time it takes for an electron to move from a higher energy state to a lower energy state corresponds to the frequency of the emitted photon. Conversely, when the electron is excited back to a higher energy state, the time is longer as additional energy is required to go from a low impedance (actually viscosity) state to a higher one. An example of this is shown with other external factors like cooling, which can modify the lattice size (EM viscosity), thereby influencing the frequency of the emitted energy.

Within the QA Universe, connections to the QA at energy origination or the concept of the “first jerk,” and “first tilt” are suggested hoever it is not shown that the Fine Structure Constant applies to energy only structures.

**Time Dilation**

In QA, the concept of time dilation is addressed by considering the impedance of space and its variations along different paths to observers from the charge movement or “energy event” that initiates the wave. Observers situated at the same distance from the event but in different directions may experience different time delays in perceiving the event due to these impedance differences. Additionally, the amount of gravitational lensing encountered on each path can lead to varying redshifts observed by different observers. This novel perspective offers insights into the temporal distortions caused by the varying properties of space, which may have implications for testing QA’s predictions.

This is analogous to using coax phasing lines to adjust signal phasing or delays in phased array antennas or precision test equipment, where signal path lengths are altered to make signals appear at different times.

**Duality**

The Double Slit Experiment demonstrates that EM energy possesses properties of both waves and particles. The experiment involves a monochromatic light source, two side-by-side slits, and a screen behind them. When light passes through both slits, an interference pattern is observed, indicating wave interference. When one slit is closed, a single line of light is observed. With both slits open and a “single photon” of light released, an interference pattern gradually appears over time.

QA’s goal is to develop a mechanism that replicates the properties of photons as described by both quantum or particle physics. The double slit experiment’s results are related to the fact that EM waves have two components: magnetic flux and charge voltage. The experiment involves high impedance ports at the slots and low impedance ports at the edges, acting as measuring transducers. The slots represent far field voltage, while the edges represent near field current interactions. The double slit apparatus serves as an impedance transition for the EM wave, splitting it into charge energy and magnetic energy.

One possibility is that the impedance at which EM energy is measured is critical. Measurement of EM energy requires impedance changes, with high impedance used to measure charge or voltage and low impedance used to measure current, which generates magnetic fields. In the real world, low and high impedance are a quarter wavelength apart. In the near field, EM energy is influenced by the local impedance.

The observation reveals that the edges of the slits can cause particles to behave like waves, while energy photons passing through the center appear as dots. The impedance gradients of the slits relationship to the energy phase as it passes through determines whether a wave or particle measurement is obtained. The wave function describes the position of the energy dipole, while the particle function describes the momentum of a particle. These functions can be measured using position and momentum operators.

Another possible solution is viewing a photon from the leading end (the direction of charge movement) along the exact axis; we would not see the EM energy radiated in waves; we would see only the point charge of the photon’s wavefront compressed to a point. However, if we were to view the photon from a different angle, we would see the EM fields due to the wave-like nature of both the charge and flux interacting. In this case, the photon’s energy would be spread out in space, and we would be able to see the wave of the photon.

This perspective offers an intriguing explanation of wave-particle duality. The waves observed are not the photons themselves but rather the ripples in impedance (Z_{0}) as they encounter changes in impedance, causing electron flow at the receptor (Einstein’s photoelectric effect). This also explains why photons don’t have to be directed straight at an observer to be seen. A single photon passing through the Z_{0} field generates waves propagating in various directions, similar to the energy from a dipole. Charges oscillating back and forth agitate the field. A single photon dead on does not generate these waves.

**The Uniformity of the CMB**

The QA model provides an alternative explanation for the characteristics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), challenging the notion of a uniform expansion from a singular point. By presenting this hypothesis, the CA model challenges the prevailing understanding of the CMB and offers new insights into its origins.

Current cosmological models attribute the uniformity of the CMB to the rapid expansion of the universe during the period of cosmic inflation. According to this view, regions of the universe that were in causal contact before inflation began were able to reach thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed uniformity of the CMB.

The alternative hypotheses propose that the uniformity of the CMB may be the result of complex interactions involving energy reflections from fluctuations in spacetime impedance. Exploring the role of energy reflections and changing impedance in shaping the uniformity of the CMB opens up new avenues for research and theoretical development. By investigating these mechanisms further, we may gain deeper insights into the fundamental nature of the early universe and the processes that gave rise to the observed cosmic microwave background.

**Elimination of dark energy and dark matter**

QA eliminates the need for hypothetical entities such as dark energy and dark matter, providing a natural and alternative explanation for observed cosmic phenomena. By addressing the underlying mechanisms driving cosmic acceleration and gravitational effects, QA offers a compelling alternative to conventional dark sector theories.

**Big Bang**

Understanding the mechanism behind gathering forces, QA offers insights into how matter and energy come together to form structures in the universe. The gathering forces inherent in energy self organization preclude the need for the Big Bang. The fact that the universe did not start from a singularity also solves the varying rate of expansion claimed to be part of the early universe’s expansion rate profile.

**Expansion**

The fact that the universe did not start from a singularity also solves the varying rate of expansion claimed to be part of the early universe’s expansion rate profile.

**Black Holes**

With Quantum Admittance, black holes represent extremely dense energy concentrations where light is slowed by an extremely dense μ_{0}ε_{0} field. It can never be so dense as to stop the flow of energy, because it is the flow of energy that builds the field. The speed of energy is asymptotic to zero but never zero.