**Background**

The Quantum Admittance theory is from a mathematical model designed in the early 2000s to predict field patterns for EM antennas. It is based on the idea that EM energy can be described as resonant charge dipoles, i.e., photons as waves.

**Quantum**

Understanding the origin of quantum is essential to understanding the universe and its evolution. According to the postulates at the foundation of the QA, the basic unit of energy is a pair of dissimilar charges.

With QA, the fundamental origin of energy is attributed to charge, with a specific emphasis on moving charges. QA postulates that the basic of energy is a pair of dissimilar charges, not in polarity but a difference in quantum value. It is the idea of these two spinning around a common barycenter that gives randomness to an observer.

**Vacuum of space**

This initial quasi-particle emerges as an electron leaves behind a wake, known as a hole, with reverse polarity. Together, the hole-electron pair constitutes an energy dipole. The separation of opposite charges in these photon dipole pairs results in a gradient, causing the acceleration of photons relative to the energy density.

**Absolute Zero**

In the quantum realm, where temperatures and pressures are exceptionally low, thermionic emission becomes a noteworthy phenomenon. This process involves the expulsion of electrons from a surface induced by heat. At the quantum level, inherent noise leads to fluctuations in charge density, even in seemingly empty space. These fluctuations become the building blocks for the creation of charges, giving rise to the formation of the first quasi-particle.

Moreover, within the quantum realm, the concept of Brownian motion and random walk theory further elucidates the intricate dance of energy generation. Brownian motion, initially observed in the erratic movement of pollen grains suspended in water by Robert Brown, unveils the incessant jostling of particles due to thermal fluctuations. This perpetual motion imbues even the void of space with a frenetic energy, as charges undergo ceaseless collisions and interactions. Likewise, the random walk theory unveils the stochastic journey of charges, akin to a meandering path through a maze. Each step, dictated by chance encounters and probabilistic outcomes, contributes to the dynamic flux of energy within the quantum fabric. Thus, the amalgamation of these concepts paints a vivid portrait of the vibrant tapestry of energy generation at the quantum scale, underscoring the foundational principles of QA.

**Charge**

To comprehend the universe and its evolution, delving into the origin of energy is paramount. With QA, the genesis of energy is intricately tied to charge, particularly the movement of charges.

**Origin of energy**

Crucially, as photons are weightless, their acceleration is instantaneous concerning the effects of the ε_{0} and μ_{0} impedance fields. This intricate interplay at the quantum level sets the stage for the dynamic generation and acceleration of energy within the framework QA.

QA introduces the intriguing idea that the essence of energy emerges from the interaction of these two charges as they spin around a common Barycenter. It is this dynamic dance of charges that imparts a sense of randomness when observed by an external observer. In other words, the interaction between these charges, characterized by their unique quantum values, results in a dynamic and seemingly unpredictable behavior, contributing to the richness and complexity of the observed energy patterns.

**Photon generation**

There are two types of photon generation, single-ended and bi-directional.

Single-ended photon generation, such as that seen in lightning or LEDs, occurs when a charged particle accelerates in one direction. This acceleration causes the particle to emit a photon. The photon has a definite polarization, which is determined by the direction of the particle’s acceleration.

Bi-directional photon generation, such as that seen in rotating natural phenomena or radio transmitters, occurs when a charged particle accelerates in both directions. This acceleration causes the particle to emit two photons. The two photons have opposite polarizations and are 180 degrees out of phase.

**Spin**

In the context of quantum mechanics, the term “spin” denotes an intrinsic property inherent in elementary particles like electrons, protons, and neutrons. Despite its name, quantum spin doesn’t signify a literal spinning motion but rather represents a fundamental characteristic. This intrinsic property imparts distinctive behaviors to particles, contributing to the intricate nature of the quantum realm. In essence, spin, in the QA model emerges as a result of the ongoing dynamics of charges seeking equilibrium, adding a layer of complexity to the behavior of elementary particles. This behavior is a result of aberration that manifests as spin in elementary particles as charges interact and adjust in their pursuit of the lowest energy state.

Quantum spin can only take on precise, discrete values since it is quantized. Half-integer values, such as 1/2, 3/2, and so on, are used to represent the quantization of spin. Spin differs from conventional angular momentum, which can assume continuous values, because of this unusual property.

**Impedance/Admittance as moderator**

The idea that the impedance of the medium determines the behavior of particles and waves is intriguing. In classical electromagnetic theory, impedance plays a crucial role in determining how waves propagate through a medium. Higher impedance tends to reflect waves, while lower impedance allows for greater transmission. Applying this concept to particles and waves in quantum mechanics suggests that the impedance of the medium could influence whether a particle behaves more like a localized entity or a wave-like phenomenon.

**First Jerk**

A precursor to QA Theory, every system exhibits a “first jerk,” which is the minimum displacement that occurs when energy is applied to a system. In a servo system, this basic movement would be called the “first jerk,” the barely discernible but required first step or movement to separate the static from the dynamic. This represents the minimum energy required to make a system move. This is Plank’s quantum, the energy required to overcome the threshold of tension holding the charges together.

**First Lattice**

Striving to reconcile Einstein’s assertion that space lacks a means to propagate energy, we embarked on a journey of theoretical exploration, culminating in the conceptualization of the lattice as our primal mechanism. This lattice, woven from the fundamental properties of electromagnetic permittivity (** ε_{0}**) and permeability (

**), serves as the primordial framework upon which the fabric of reality is structured.**

**μ**_{0}**First Tilt**

In the realm of QA, gravity emerges not as a force of attraction between masses, but as a consequence of the subtle interplay between fields and their inherent tilts. The notion of ‘First tilt’ posits that the presence of two or more entities, each possessing a distinct field orientation, induces a subtle inclination within the fabric of energy-space. This initial tilt sets the stage for gravitational dynamics. As these tilted fields intersect, they impart a directional bias upon the flow of energy, compelling particles to navigate along their slopes.

**First gravity**

The novel perspective that gravity is intricately linked to energy introduces a fresh viewpoint on its origin. The narrative unfolds with the inception of the second photon in the universe, occurring simultaneously with the emergence of the first. This connection isn’t rooted in a mutual attraction between the two photons but rather in their collaborative creation of a gradient within the Z_{0} field.

This shared creation of a Z_{0} field gradient catalyzes the acceleration of energy between the two photons, initiating a new process. Rather than being driven by a direct attraction, this process marks the beginning of a dynamic quest for energy equilibrium in the evolving framework of QA.

**Rest Energy Coupling with the Impedance of Space**

The QA Universe introduces a compelling concept that unifies gravity with electromagnetic energy, offering a potential explanation for the four fundamental forces: strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromotive, and gravity. Forces in the near and far fields form complex impedance structures, influencing attraction and repulsion dynamics.

Here, it’s important to note that in the context of QA, it is the rest energy that couples with the impedance of space to cause the accelerations. This critical coupling of rest energy with the impedance of space forms the basis for the unique insights provided by QA into the nature of gravity.

An important distinction with regard to the uncertainty principle should be noted: While uncertainty involves the knowledge of the position of energy within a system it does not prohibit the knowledge of the rest energy of a system.

The **tapered wire transmission line** is a model designed to simulate a microcosm of space, providing a clear visualization of forces and their relationships within an electrical context. The key idea behind this model is the manipulation of the characteristic impedance (Z0Z_0Z0) of a transmission line, which is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the wire. This setup allows for a gradient in the speed of energy transmission, with energy traveling faster in regions where the cross-sectional area is smaller.

**Energy Concentration**

Central to the dynamics of the universe are Lorentz forces, instrumental in sculpting energy into concentrations as dictated by the inverse square law. This inherent attraction constitutes a fundamental building block in the construction of the universe, functioning as the indispensable mechanism for forming energy gradients that, in turn, define the ε_{0} and μ_{0} fields—channels through which energy seamlessly flows.

These dynamically modulated fields govern the speed of energy traversing through them, ultimately manifesting as the force we recognize as gravity. The intricate interplay of Lorentz’s forces not only shapes the fabric of the cosmos but also establishes the foundation for the gravitational forces that govern celestial bodies and their interactions. In essence, within QA, energy concentration becomes a pivotal concept, intricately tied to the fundamental forces that govern the behavior and structure of the universe.

**Resonance**

Resonance is a critical concept in QA. It refers to the phenomenon where energy vibrations synchronize in time and phase. This alignment becomes particularly significant when a system experiences a driving force oscillating at its inherent frequency. This leads to a significant amplification of the system’s oscillations.

In the context of QA’s electromagnetic (EM) framework, resonance manifests as the synchronization of individual photons. This synchronization combines them into specific charge levels at certain impedance values. These charge levels, in turn, drive the observed currents within the near field. Notably, this process necessitates the coherence of numerous quanta, achieved through the resonance of waves themselves. A key aspect of resonance in QA is the alignment of charge vectors across all four dimensions, resulting in “in-resonance” photons.

When photons achieve this four-dimensional resonance, they generate a cohesive field that explains the intricate patterns observed in electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon serves as a cornerstone for wave propagation, providing insights into the behavior of concentrated energy and the dynamic interplay of forces.

**Self Resonance**

Self-resonance is another crucial mechanism in QA. It describes the phenomenon where a system with inherent properties vibrates at its natural frequency, leading to amplified oscillations. This concept holds particular significance in understanding energy loss within the system.

Self-resonance manifests across various systems, including electrical circuits (inductors and capacitors), mechanical structures (bridges and buildings), and even biological entities. In electrical circuits, self-resonance can impact signal transmission, while in mechanical structures, it can lead to potentially damaging vibrations if not managed properly. Interestingly, QA theory proposes that critical self-resonant molecular structures may be the underlying cause of radioactivity.

Understanding self-resonance is essential within the QA framework, as it offers valuable insights for optimizing performance and mitigating undesired consequences in various engineering and design applications. This concept transcends the boundaries of physics, providing a lens to comprehend the interconnected rhythms that shape our world. The intricate dance of forces within self-resonant energy concentrations reflects the grand symphony of the universe.

**Filtering**

Building upon the concept of single-frequency resonance, QA theory introduces multi-frequency filtering. A natural tendency exists for energy levels within the Z_{0} field to organize and coalesce into harmonious groups. This inherent arrangement arises from the near-wavelength attraction intrinsic to the field’s structure. As a result, slightly different wavelengths exhibit a predisposition to resonate with similar pairs, leading to the phenomenon of filtering.

In QA, filtering can be envisioned as an orchestrated process that fosters energy harmony. The near-wavelength attraction acts as a guiding force, directing disparate energy levels to resonate with their corresponding counterparts. This organized grouping reflects the inherent coherence within the Z_{0} field and highlights the efficiency and elegance of the underlying energy processes.

Imagine a cosmic symphony where energy wavelengths find their harmonious partners, forming resonant pairs that contribute to the overall coherence and dynamic equilibrium within the universe. Filtering thus becomes a pivotal mechanism by which the universe refines and aligns its energetic components, revealing an underlying order amidst the complexity of the cosmic dance.

Focusing on the mathematical steps from single to multi-frequency solutions showcases the intended mathematical development, even without including complex equations.

**Waves**

In QA, the manifestation of waves transcends a mere oscillation of energy cycles—it becomes a symphony of quantum forces and coherent processes that intricately govern the behavior of subatomic particles.

While a singular cycle of a wave may give the impression of possessing the energy of a lone photon, the true dynamism lies within the individual photons encapsulated within that wave. The wave production within electromagnetic (EM) systems involves the aggregation of energy into amplitudes.

It is the slope amplitude of these photons that embodies the energy and performs the work, unveiling a profound connection between the seemingly fluid nature of waves and the discrete, quantized realm of photons. This precise alignment creates a gradient within the Z_{0} field, a quantum force that intricately defines the behavior—specifically, the acceleration—of subatomic particles.

This coherent process of wave production in EM systems is related to behavior of particles at the subatomic level. This concept offers a unified perspective of electromagnetic energy across its spectrum. QA provides a comprehensive explanation of how energy behaves and propagates in the universe.

An analogy can be drawn between the concept of an EM wave and the rhythmic waves of the ocean. Just as an ocean wave is composed of myriad H_{2}O molecules, an EM wave is a coherent ensemble of resonant photons. The energy within each H_{2}O molecule represents the electromagnetic energy, and the amplitude of the physical wave is composed of millions of these resonant photons.

The journey of the coherent EM wave mirrors the ebb and flow of ocean waves, with each photon contributing to the overall amplitude. However, the inverse square law, acting as a natural dissipation mechanism, gradually reduces the amplitude of the mechanical carrier wave. Eventually, the energy becomes unrecoverable, akin to waves gently washing up on the shore after traversing the vast expanse of the ocean. In the Z_{0} fields, the coherent EM wave is the result of intricate interplay of resonant photons.

**Energy Propagation**

Electromagnetic energy transfer is a complex process that involves the interplay of electric and magnetic fields, charge gradients, and impedance. Far-field transfer involves energy transfer between entities without a common return path. This method of inter-frame energy transfer between non-connected energy source and load possesses the remarkable ability to traverse vast distances across space, even spanning light-years.

QA provides a unique perspective on this process, suggesting that energy travels through space as if it were propagating through a transmission line. This propagation is always to the lowest impedance points in a system, i.e., the lowest energy state available. In the case of the universe, it is from open space to black holes. The mechanism of this equalization is shown in the tapered wire transmission line experiment. which shows the energy field interacts with the impedance gradient to propagate and distribute energy throughout the system. This is a fundamental mechanism in the creation of galaxies. It is a fundamental aspect of electromagnetism, involving the movement of energy to perform work.

**Equilibrium**

The process of energy equalization in different impedance environments can be attributed to the interaction between the energy field and the impedance gradient at the point of the near field. Changes in the energy field, such as alterations in its amplitude or frequency, have system-wide effects. These changes propagate across the entire system, influencing the overall behavior of the energy field. Space itself possesses the quality of resolving gradients and allowing them to seek entropy. The speed at which this entropy is achieved is the speed of energy wave propagation.

Recognizing entropy as an essential aspect of energy dynamics in The QA model provides valuable insights into EM energy behaviors and interactions, unraveling the mysteries of the universe. The interplay between energy transfer, impedance changes, mixing, and entropy showcases the intricate dynamics of EM energy in space and provides insights into the nature of energy and its transformations. This iterative process of refining our understanding, akin to the constant adjustment of impedance gradients seeking equilibrium, mirrors the ongoing refinement of our models and theories as we strive to uncover deeper truths about the cosmos.

**Entropy**

In the context of EM energy, entropy refers to the state of balance or stability reached by the energy field in different impedance environments. When energy encounters different impedance environments, it undergoes changes and seeks to reach a state of equilibrium. Entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system, while equilibrium is a state in which the system is no longer changing. Entropy tends to increase over time, while equilibrium is a state in which entropy is minimized.

The constant gathering and maintenance of equilibrium, causing energy movement at both grand and small scales. This process leads to phenomena like gravitational lensing, altered photon trajectories, and sideband generation, contributing to entropy friction and resulting in the observed redshift in cosmic phenomena. Entropy emerges as a fundamental aspect of energy transfer and interaction within the context of the QA’s mechanisms. It encompasses phenomena like attenuation, scattering, delays, and friction losses during energy transfer, showcasing the intricate dynamics of electromagnetic (EM) energy in space and providing insights into energy’s nature and transformations.

Gravity’s influence extends to entropy, manifesting as redshift from successive changes in energy speed during propagation. Redshift variations signify the number and severity of energy deflections encountered, offering a unique perspective on gravitational dynamics. Photons and waves, both carriers of energy, undergo transformations and releases at impedance discontinuities, shedding light on the measurement of photons as electrons.

**Redshift**

In the realm of predicting redshift, QA offers fresh insights into the phenomenon, attributing it to compressions in ε_{0} and μ_{0} from galactic energy. This model anticipates an accelerated redshift at lower frequencies, likened to an exponential decay process. This concept aligns with the expanding speed of charges at lower frequencies, resulting in a ‘Planck’ limit at the spectrum’s lower boundary. Energy loss due to redshift manifests as a reduction in wavelength, signifying direct frequency changes in energy photon dipoles as their paths bend around a circular-like trajectory. This energy transformation contributes to entropy, affecting EM energy propagation, distribution, and transformation in space.

From a receiver’s perspective, signal delay, whether caused by impedance changes or the Doppler effect, results in a shift in signal arrival time. The receiver’s perception of the delayed signal may not distinguish between these mechanisms, interpreting the delayed signal as arriving later in time.

Theoretical models differentiate between gravitational and Doppler redshift in astronomical observations. General relativity provides predictions for gravitational redshift based on mass distribution, while Doppler redshift is associated with relative motion. Models compare predicted redshifts with observations, supporting inferences about underlying physical processes.”

**Deflection**

Energy undergoes transformations and transfers as it travels through space, encountering impedance changes. G_{v} = -Δ_{x}/Δ√ε**_{0}μ_{0}** defines gravity as the acceleration of energy, creating losses and mixing sidebands due to bending or scattering. The bending of energy around large celestial objects, known as gravitational lensing, involves spectral mixing and showcases energy storage possibilities in time. Changes in impedance and scattering cause delays and friction losses, influencing the propagation speed and wavelength of energy and leading to shifts and dispersion.

Energy traverses space as electromagnetic energy propagates in the form of far-field waves. These waves encounter deflection due to fluctuations in the ε_{0} and μ_{0} fields, leading to changes in space’s impedance. As a result, slight changes in speed occur, which are perceived as equivalent to gravity.

There are two types of signal mixing that naturally occur in the cosmos. Mixing is where two energy wavelengths are either added or multiplied together to generate new signals at frequencies related to the input frequencies which are either the difference or odd harmonics of the of the original signals.

QA suggests that nonlinear mixing is also used to create particles. This is because it describes the universe as being made up of a fundamental energy field that is constantly fluctuating. Nonlinear mixing events can produce a wide range of particles.

**Wave recovery**

Extracting work from a magnetic dipole requires establishing a frame where current can flow in a new circuit. These amplitudes can be disambiguated back into electrons by a change in impedance by creating a near field. As a result of this impedance change, magnetic flux can be coupled to a new impedance conductor, resembling the operation of a transformer. This implies that energy utilization must occur within a frame containing both poles. This transformation of current from dipole pairs into electric currents allows energy to flow through an external circuit.

This transducer is sometimes called an “antenna”, a resonant circuit that sets up a field that vibrates due to the excitation of the electron-anti-electron pair. This couples energy to an external circuit through transmission lines, which maintain the phase relationships of the coupled signal, which can then be amplified. When antennas are used for energy measurements, EM waves are quantified by their field strength in volts per meter.

Alternatively, a zero-impedance detector can be used. This method involves the conversion of charge energy, leading to current flow through a conductor. The current is then transformed into a voltage signal using a current-to-voltage converter, often employing an operational amplifier. Subsequent filtering and processing of the signal follow. This approach places the sensing point directly at the charge detector (a current-to-voltage amplifier). Energy measurements are typically expressed in units like joules, calories, BTU, or kilowatt hours in the time dimension. In contrast, particle energy is often measured in electron volts (eV), and EM waves are quantified by their field strength in volts per meter.

**Particle formation**

Closure of the magnetic field is essential for movement without radiation, requiring energy to be transported within a toroid with its ends closed, akin to a shunted magnetic configuration. This condition is achieved by the arcing of the dipole charges when the wavelength gets below the breakdown voltage in a vacuum. This configuration allows the storage of energy without inducing current flow. It also prohibits collapse of the dipole to ever smaller diameters.