**Energy: The Essence of Charge Dipoles**

**Introduction**

Energy: The fundamental essence of charge differentials and dipoles as photons, forming the basis for electromagnetic interactions in the Charge Admittance framework.

In the realm of quantum mechanics, the nature of photons and their interaction with space has been a subject of intense scrutiny. This thesis proposes a paradigm shift, suggesting that photons are fundamentally charge dipoles defined by the speed of their spin. Unlike traditional models attributing photonic energy to frequency alone, this theory posits that the energy density of a photon correlates with the slope of its zero crossing on a sine wave, as it interacts with the impedance of space. This perspective challenges established quantum mechanical principles, offering a new framework for understanding Planck’s constant and the quantization of energy. By exploring the implications of a charge dipole model, we aim to unravel the complexities of energy quantization and the fundamental nature of light.

Charge Admittance (CA) extends this model, proposing that gravity operates at the smallest charge level, where interactions of charges within dipoles dynamically create space, influenced by electric permittivity (ε_{0}) and magnetic permeability (μ_{0}). This suggests that gravitational phenomena are emergent properties arising from energy interactions at the quantum level. Photons, as charge dipoles, have energy density determined by their spin and the slope at the zero crossing of the sine wave, impacting space’s impedance. This thesis redefines gravity and space as dynamic, emergent properties of energy interactions, offering a unified view of quantum mechanics and cosmology.

**Abstract**

This thesis presents a groundbreaking theory redefining photons as charge and anti-charge pairs spontaneously emerging from the vacuum of space. These pairs create a trailing wave, akin to a sailboat’s wake, driven by the displacement of charges in time. The charge dipoles constitute photons, with their energy density determined by the speed of their spin and the slope at the zero crossing of the sine wave, as they interact with space’s impedance. This theory challenges conventional quantum mechanics, offering a novel explanation for the quantization of energy described by Planck’s constant. Charge Admittance (CA) proposes that gravity is an emergent property resulting from interactions of charges within dipoles, influenced by electric permittivity (ε_{0}) and magnetic permeability (μ_{0}). By integrating CA, this thesis provides new insights into the behavior of light, the structure of space, and the fundamental nature of the universe.

**The Question**

**What is Energy?**

**Concept and Consequences in Charge Admittance**: Charge Admittance (CA) theory redefines photons as charge dipoles, challenging traditional quantum mechanics by proposing that the energy density of a photon is determined by its spin speed and the slope at the zero crossing of its sine wave. This model suggests that gravity is an emergent property of interactions between charges within these dipoles, influenced by the electric permittivity (ε

_{0}) and magnetic permeability (μ

_{0}) of space. By examining the intricate relationship between charge differentials, energy propagation, and space’s impedance, CA offers a unified framework that links the behavior of light, the structure of space, and the fundamental nature of gravity. This perspective has profound implications, including a revised understanding of Planck’s constant, the quantization of energy, and the dynamics of gravitational phenomena.

**Photon Generation and Sidebands**: Traditionally, photon generation is seen as oscillations around a zero point, theoretically creating sidebands. However, empirical evidence from LEDs suggests that photons are emitted without sidebands. This thesis posits that photons are generated through discrete energy level transitions of charges, bypassing zero-crossing and sideband generation typically seen in radio frequency transmissions.

**Electromagnetic Dipoles and Photon Structure**: Electromagnetic dipoles, composed of opposite charges like electrons and positrons, exhibit behaviors influenced by external electromagnetic fields. In photon generation, the dynamics of these dipoles are crucial. We represent the photon’s charge nature using the double wavy arrow symbol ↭, embodying the intrinsic duality of the photon, with both positive and negative energy charges within a single entity. This symbol also reflects the dynamic interchange of energy associated with photon emission and absorption processes, highlighting the complex charge dynamics inherent in photon interactions.

**Electrons and Elemental Charge**: Examining the relationship between the energy of an electron and that of an elemental anti-charge at the quantum level reveals a close association. The density and wavelength of anti-electron charges indicate a fundamental relationship with the electron. This observation provides insights into charge distribution and energy organization within particles, shedding light on the underlying structure of matter at the quantum scale.

**Time Symmetry**: Physical laws often exhibit time symmetry, meaning they hold true whether time moves forward or backward. However, phenomena like entropy and radioactive decay violate this symmetry. The energy stacking between an electron and its anti-charge prompts an examination of their relationship across temporal boundaries. An electron (➔q) with a positive charge moves forward in time, while an anti-electron (⬅q) with a negative charge travels backward. This temporal symmetry suggests a mirrored relationship between these particles, with their charges and directionalities reflected across the temporal divide.

**Relative Charge**: Stacking equal numbers of positive and negative charges results in a net charge of zero, as positive charges cancel out negative ones. Introducing an extra charge disrupts this balance, resulting in a charged system. On the electron side of the mirror, extra negative charges lead to a net negative charge, as electrons seek equilibrium by gaining additional negative charge. This observation underscores the interconnectedness of particles across temporal boundaries.

**Charge Packing**: Calculations of the density and wavelength of ⬅q charges show a close correspondence with the energy density of an electron. Despite slight variations, these values indicate that ⬅q charges stack within the electron’s volume, suggesting a fundamental association between the two energy levels. The observed discrepancy in charge packing may be due to impedance differences within the electron compared to space in a vacuum. Further investigation could provide insights into charge distribution and energy organization within particles.

**Relative Charge Values Between Quantum and Electron**: At the quantum level, electrons exhibit charge characteristics similar to those at the macroscopic level due to charge stacking within their volume. Electrons, composed of multiple elemental charges, manifest charge at different amplitudes based on the stacking arrangement. The fundamental charge differences remain consistent, suggesting that variations in charge amplitude reflect the stacking arrangements of elemental charges within the particle’s volume. This observation provides insight into the reciprocal relationship between electrons and anti-charges across temporal dimensions.

**Photon as an Energy Dipole**: The proposal that a photon might be an energy dipole at the Planck scale introduces a new perspective on electromagnetic radiation. This concept suggests that photons embody both positive and negative energy charges, similar to the duality observed in electrons and anti-electrons. Considering the photon as an energy dipole could elucidate electromagnetic interactions and energy propagation at the quantum level. Additionally, the notion that charge at the Planck scale could be the same as at the electron scale opens avenues for reevaluating fundamental charge properties. If an electron’s charge is composed of multiple photons and an anti-charge, it implies a unity between charge structures at different scales.

**Dimensionality and the Planck Limit**: Our model introduces a “quantum-sized” dipole, challenging the view of photons as point-like particles. This internal structure, hypothesized at the Planck scale (1.6 x 10^-35 meters), might break down our understanding of space and time. Exploring the relationships between electron-positron separation and resulting fields could provide insights into this “size” and its connection to the Planck length.

**Energy, Frequency, and the Dipole Model**: Our model posits a constant total energy of a photon, aligning with E = hf. Higher frequency photons carry the same total energy but deliver it in a shorter time. The challenge is to mathematically explain how the proposed spinning dipole’s internal dynamics (changes in electron-positron separation and speed) influence the characteristics of the associated electromagnetic wave while maintaining constant total energy.

**Charge Spacing and the Reduced Planck Constant (ħ)**: Charge spacing is set by electromagnetic characteristics rather than mass/momentum. This spacing might be related to the Planck length, suggesting a link between light’s fundamental structure and the smallest perceivable unit of length. The energy density limit, where rotational speed reaches a critical threshold, might be connected to the reduced Planck constant (ħ), defining the internal dipole’s dynamics and the maximum energy density achievable by a photon.

**Mass Visibility**: The model proposes zero net mass for photons but introduces “mass permeability” for the photon’s field. Exploring the implications of a field interacting with mass differently could involve qualitative considerations of field penetration and attenuation through various materials.

**A Revised Schrödinger Wave Equation**: The Schrödinger wave equation has limitations, particularly in representing energy transitions.s between energy levels.

**The Planar Photon Dipole**

One specific characteristic of the photon dipole is its planar nature and its intrinsic spin. This property has significant implications for understanding the interaction of photons with the electromagnetic field. The flat magnetic dipole associated with a photon can induce a three-dimensional displacement in the μ_{0}ϵ_{0} field, which is the product of the permeability and permittivity of free space. This phenomenon can be comprehensively analyzed through the combination of two fundamental principles in electromagnetism: Maxwell’s fourth equation and the Lorentz force law.

Maxwell’s fourth equation, also known as Ampère’s circuital law with Maxwell’s addition, is given by:

**∇×B = μ0J + ϵ _{0} ∂E/∂t**

This equation describes how a time-varying electric field E and electric current density J produce a magnetic field B. The displacement current term, ϵ_{0} ∂E/∂t introduced by Maxwell, extends the applicability of Ampère’s law to situations where electric fields change over time.

The Lorentz force law, on the other hand, describes the force experienced by a charged particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields:

**F=qE+qv×B**

Here, F is the force on a particle with charge q, E is the electric field, v is the particle’s velocity, and B is the magnetic field. This law captures the interplay between electric and magnetic forces acting on moving charges.

Together, these principles reveal how the planar magnetic dipole moment of a photon can influence the electromagnetic field. The interaction of the photon’s dipole with the μ_{0}ϵ_{0} field via these laws underscores the complex and dynamic nature of photon behavior in an electromagnetic context. This combined framework provides a deeper insight into how photons, despite their seemingly simple structure, can exert influence in three-dimensional space and time through their spin and planar magnetic dipole moment.

**Implications**

This new paradigm provides insights into the behavior of electromagnetic waves in various environments. The ratio of permeability to permittivity (μ_{0}/ε_{0}), critical for maintaining wave resonance, varies with the spatial configuration of the electromagnetic fields, influencing energy storage and transmission. For instance, near black holes, the alignment of electric and magnetic fields maximizes energy storage, while in the far reaches of space, the opposite alignment minimizes it.

Understanding these dynamics aids in the development of novel technologies and applications in optics, telecommunications, and quantum mechanics. For example, manipulating electromagnetic dipoles can enhance the performance of optical devices, improve signal transmission in communication systems, and advance the study of quantum entanglement and photon emission.

**Proofs**

This thesis is presented with the knowledge that directly observing the quantum dipole is currently beyond the range of signal generation and measurement. Overcoming hurdles and isolating dipole interactions underscores the complexity of validating the model empirically.

**Predictions**

The idea of a quantum dipole leads to the conclusion that there is zero energy in the universe.

The quantum dipole allows rigid structures due to the strength of its two field bonds.

The strings formed with a series of adjacent quantum dipoles could lead to the formation of knots that form elaborate arrangements much like particles.

In resonant formation, these quantum dipoles can create waves of any frequency or amplitude – much like H_{2}O making waves in an ocean

**Conclusion**

The thesis on energy aligns with the state-of-the-art description, presenting a comprehensive exploration while acknowledging foundational principles

Revisiting the energy dipole generation mechanism and the role of electromagnetic dipoles offers a deeper understanding of light and electromagnetic wave behavior. By challenging traditional models and exploring the quantum nature of photon emission, this thesis contributes to the advancement of theoretical physics and the development of innovative technological applications.

Our exploration of photon dynamics has unveiled a profound reevaluation of these fundamental particles. Through our model, photons emerge as intricate entities governed by quantum-sized spinning charge dipoles. This shift from conventional wisdom offers deeper insights into light’s nature, with postulates that represent significant strides in photon understanding. Challenges in empirical validation spur further inquiry, driving scientific progress.