**Speed of Electromagnetic Energy Propagation: A Cohesive Overview**

**Abstract**

The speed of electromagnetic (EM) energy, commonly denoted as the speed of light (c), has traditionally been regarded as a universal constant. However, emerging insights challenge this notion, suggesting that the speed of energy may be a dynamic variable influenced by factors such as impedance, gravitational forces, and environmental conditions. This paper synthesizes historical perspectives, contemporary paradigms, and the introduction of new theoretical frameworks like the Wave Resonance Constant (WRC) and Standard Earth Electromagnetic Parameters (SEEP), proposing that the speed of electromagnetic energy is more complex and context-dependent than previously understood.

**Introduction**

The speed of EM energy, symbolized by c,is fundamental to our understanding of the physical universe. Traditionally, it has been treated as an invariant constant. However, recent theoretical and experimental developments suggest that the speed of energy may not be fixed across all conditions but instead behaves as a variable influenced by medium properties, gravitational fields, and energy density. This paper examines these new paradigms, integrating Maxwell’s equations and general relativity with a refined framework for understanding the variability of c, offering deeper insights into the transmission and propagation of energy in the universe.

**Historical Evolution: Early Attempts and Observations**

**Galileo Galilei:** In the early 17th century, Galileo made early efforts to measure the speed of light, introducing the concept that light did not propagate instantaneously.

**Ole Rømer:** In 1676, Rømer’s observation of the moons of Jupiter provided the first evidence that light had a finite speed, marking a critical shift in the scientific understanding of energy transmission.

**James Clerk Maxwell:** In the 19th century, Maxwell unified electricity and magnetism through his equations, establishing a relationship between c, permittivity (ε_{0}), and permeability (μ0). Maxwell’s equations describe how electromagnetic waves propagate through space, with the speed of light c given by: c^{2} = 1/ε_{0}μ_{0} where, ε_{0} is the permittivity of free space, and μ_{0} is the permeability of free space. This was a major advance in the unification of electricity, magnetism, and light as manifestations of the same electromagnetic field.

**Einstein’s Theory of Relativity:** In 1905, Einstein’s theory of special relativity posited c as a constant in all inertial frames of reference, deeply entwined with space-time structure. While special relativity treated c as a constant, general relativity acknowledged that gravitational fields could alter energy propagation, a nuance confirmed by experiments like Pound-Rebka.

**New Paradigms in Electromagnetic Propagation**

Recent findings propose that the speed of light in vacuum c is not a fixed constant in all contexts but rather a threshold that applies under ideal conditions. Under more complex circumstances, the speed of energy propagation may vary due to local field effects, material properties, and gravitational forces. These observations challenge the notion of c as an absolute constant, suggesting that variables such as ε_{0} and μ_{0} are not perfectly fixed but respond to environmental changes.

**Wave Resonance Constant (WRC)** **– Z _{0}^{2}**

To capture this variability, we introduce the Wave Resonance Constant (WRC), which reflects the dynamic interplay between permittivity (e0) and permeability (μ_{0}). To transmit energy in a wave the ration of these must be fixed. This concept implies that as these properties change due to energy density or external fields, the effective speed of energy propagation is modified while the phase of the e0 and μ_{0} fields is fixed in their orthogonal relationship.

**Dynamic Relationship with Gravitational Forces**

The influence of gravitational fields on the speed of energy is well established by experiments like Pound-Rebka, where shifts in light frequency confirm that energy experiences time dilation and spatial distortion in gravitational fields. These effects point to a dynamic relationship between energy speed and local gravitational conditions. The concept of Quantum Admittance further explores how energy interacts with gravitational gradients, proposing that the speed of energy adapts to local curvature in space-time, a phenomenon that could be standardized using SEEP.

**Standard Earth Electromagnetic Parameters (SEEP)**

We propose the SEEP framework as a method for standardizing electromagnetic measurements under Earth-bound conditions, factoring in gravitational effects and environmental variations. SEEP defines reference values for ε_{0}, μ_{0}, and c at a specific altitude on Earth, enabling researchers to calibrate instruments and interpret data consistently, even when environmental factors vary.

**Speed of Energy as a Variable**

Building on these new paradigms, we propose that the speed of electromagnetic energy is best understood as a variable that depends on several contextual factors, such as medium properties, impedance, and local gravitational fields. This shifts the focus from c as a universal constant to a threshold value that emerges under ideal conditions, while in practice, the speed of energy adjusts to its environment.

**Energy’s Perception of Speed Changes**

Energy propagation adapts to different fields through changes in impedance, which in turn alter its speed. To energy itself, these variations may appear as gravitational influences, bending and distorting its path through space. The apparent decrease in energy speed near massive objects, like black holes, supports this idea, where c approaches zero due to extreme gravitational fields.

**Gravitational Redshift and SEEP Calibration**

The Pound-Rebka experiment, conducted in 1959, aimed to test this prediction by measuring the frequency shift of gamma rays traveling up and down in Earth’s gravity. According to the theory of general relativity, gamma rays moving upwards against gravity should experience a loss of energy, resulting in a redshift, while those moving downwards should gain energy, leading to a blueshift. The experiment successfully confirmed this prediction, demonstrating a measurable effect of gravity on the behavior of light. However, it’s important to note that the experiment’s results primarily provide evidence for the influence of gravity on the speed of light rather than a direct measurement of color shift. **NOTE: There is no earthbound method capable of differentiating between the two **conclusions**.**

The Pound-Rebka experiment demonstrated gravitational redshift and blueshift effects on energy, confirming that light loses energy as it moves against a gravitational gradient and gains energy moving towards it. While these shifts have been interpreted through frequency changes, they also suggest underlying variations in energy speed, which can be recalibrated using SEEP standards for Earth-bound measurements.

**SEEP, A New Standard:** Researchers can utilize SEEP as a standardized reference point for conducting experiments, calibrating instrumentation, and interpreting data in electromagnetism. By establishing SEEP, the impact of environmental factors on measurements of fundamental constants like the speed of light can be mitigated, ensuring consistency and accuracy across different environments. This standardization enhances the reliability and validity of scientific findings, advancing our understanding of electromagnetic phenomena and their interplay with gravitational forces. Integrating SEEP with the dynamic relationship between the speed of light and gravitational constants deepens insights into wave propagation, energy transmission, and the principles governing electromagnetism across various spatial contexts.

**Conceptual Implications of a Variable Speed of Energy**

Energy Transmission in Space: The dynamic nature of c has profound implications for space exploration and energy transmission across varying gravitational environments. For example, the slowing of light near black holes or within dense fields suggests that energy propagation may not be uniform across the universe.

Reinterpreting Redshift and Cosmic Observations: Using SEEP to calibrate measurements allows for more accurate interpretation of redshift data, particularly in astrophysical observations. This could influence our understanding of cosmic expansion and the interpretation of light from distant galaxies.

Quantum Admittance and Energy Potential: In regions of extreme energy density, such as near black holes, energy transitions from kinetic to potential forms as gravitational fields become dominant, reducing the effective speed of energy. This interplay between kinetic and potential energy through gravitational fields offers a deeper understanding of energy conservation and space-time curvature.

**Conceptual Implications**

**Baseline Speed of Light in Free Space**: The concept of a baseline speed of light in free space, denoted as cfs, provides a reference point for understanding variations in c across different environments. Calculations derived from experiments like the Pound-Rebka experiment reveal nuanced differences in c, challenging traditional notions of a constant speed of light.

The recognition of SEEP calibration portends the idea of correcting redshift seen by observatories in different gravitational gradients. The actual impact of this is thought to be negligible as the atomic clocks (em resonators) that are used to calibrate the instruments that measure this are also adjusted accordingly.

Baseline Speed (cfs): Represents the speed of light in deep space, minimally influenced by gravitational forces. Calculations show a slight difference from the speed of light at Earth’s surface, approximately 299,792,448 m/s.

**Quantum Admittance and Gravity:** Quantum Admittance theory posits that gravity affects the speed of light, where changes in cc are linked to variations in gravitational acceleration. The gravitational acceleration vector G_{v}=d_{c}/d_{x} relates changes in cc to distance changes in a gravitational field.

* Implications for Space and Energy Transmission:* The dynamic nature of c has profound implications for our understanding of space, energy propagation, and fundamental constants. The dynamic nature of cc has profound implications for our understanding of space, energy propagation, and fundamental constants. The SEEP framework helps in calibrating these variations, providing a more accurate understanding of electromagnetic phenomena across different spatial contexts.

**Benefits**

The benefits of this framework are manifold. Firstly, it provides precision, serving as a reliable reference point for calibrating and interpreting measurements within the realm of electromagnetism. Secondly, it ensures consistency across different research settings, thereby facilitating reproducibility and comparability of results. Moreover, by incorporating environmental factors that influence electromagnetic phenomena, particularly in calibration of earth-referenced measurements, it enhances accuracy and reliability. Additionally, its versatility allows for adaptation to diverse experimental contexts, accommodating variations while maintaining robustness. Finally, it promotes standardization by establishing a protocol for referencing fundamental electromagnetic constants, fostering coherence and accuracy in scientific analyses.

Using QA’s “SEEP” referenced numbers to correct General Relativity is akin to outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with cutting-edge lenses, enhancing its ability to capture and decipher the mysteries of the cosmos. This refinement offers a clearer and more precise lens through which to view the universe, shedding light on previously obscured phenomena and unveiling new insights into the fundamental workings of energy-space. By integrating these corrected numbers into General Relativity, scientists can achieve a more accurate understanding of gravitational interactions and cosmic phenomena, paving the way for breakthrough discoveries and a deeper comprehension of the universe’s intricate fabric.

**Speed of c Chart**

This chart show the relationships of various space characteristics:

**Open Space**: The speed of light (c) is at its maximum, unaffected by perpendicular space impedance (no gravitational vectors).

**Near Black Holes:** In regions of extreme energy density, the speed of light significantly decreases due to the intense gravitational field,

** Seen By Energy**: (The intelligence carried along with energy)

As energy moves through different media, impedance changes, changing the speed of energy.

Energy feels these speed changes as gravity

Energy remains a stable dipole that feels the different fields

Parameter | Black hole | Open Space |
---|---|---|

ε0 – Permittivity | High | Low |

μ0 – Permeability | High | Low |

Contour Tilt | 90 Vertical – towards energy | 0 Horizontal – parallel to energy |

Gravitational acceleration | High – Near speed of C | Low – Near Zero |

C speed | Slow – Near zero | Fast – Near maximum |

** Seen By Observer**: (an outside intelligence observing energy in its travels)

The observer cannot see the speed or the ε0 and μ_{0} fields

The wavelengths appear longer as gravity stretches the energy in its travel

Parameter | Black hole | Open Space |
---|---|---|

Wave | Long | Short |

Stretch | Out | In |

Freq | Low | High |

Color | Red | Ultra violet |

Energy | Low | High |

Gravity | Near infinite | None |

**Counterintuitive Aspects**

Where Gravitational acceleration is higher it appears to an observer that energy is the lowest however the energy density is the highest.

Gravity converts speed from kinetic energy through the potential energy it imparts to the Admittance field. When energy is raised against the force of gravity, work is done to lift it, and this work is stored as potential energy in the gravitational field. This potential energy can then be converted back into kinetic energy when the field is allowed to return to equilibrium. This process is integral to many natural phenomena and is indeed a crucial aspect of how energy is conserved and transferred in gravitational systems.

**SEEP Chart**

Earth | Parameter | Space |

Faster | c speed | Slower |

Red | Color Shift | Blue |

Lower | Apparent energy | Higher |

Longer | Wavelength | Shorter |

Lower | e_{0} | Higher |

Lower | u_{0} | Higher |

**Earth:** Represents a point of reference for gravitational relationships.

**Parameters: **Various properties or characteristics affected by gravity.

**Space: **Represents the environment outside Earth’s gravitational influence.

**c (Speed of Light):** Refers to the speed of light, which can vary depending on the gravitational field. In lower gravitational fields (such as on Earth), the speed of light is faster compared to open space where it is slower.

**Redshift/Blueshift:** Describes the shift in the color of light due to gravitational effects. Redshift occurs when light is moving away from a gravitational source (lower apparent energy), while Blueshift occurs when light is moving towards it (higher apparent energy).

**Apparent Energy:** Represents the perceived energy of light, which is influenced by the gravitational field. Light appears to have lower energy in lower gravitational fields (on Earth) and higher energy in higher gravitational fields (in open space).

**Wavelength:** Refers to the length of a wave, which changes depending on the gravitational field. Longer wavelengths are associated with lower gravitational fields (on Earth), while shorter wavelengths occur in higher gravitational fields (in open space).

**e_{0} (Permittivity of Free Space):** Indicates the electric permittivity of space, which tends to decrease in lower gravitational fields (such as on Earth) and increase in higher gravitational fields (in open space).

**u _{0} (Permeability of Free Space):** Represents the magnetic permeability of space, which follows a similar trend to e0.

**Rule**

Increasing potential always costs energy.

Decreasing potential always releases energy.

**Reference**

The Pound-Rebka experiment, conducted in 1959, provided compelling experimental evidence supporting the gravitational redshift phenomenon. In this landmark experiment, Robert Pound and Glen Rebka measured the change in the frequency of gamma-ray photons as they traveled between the top and bottom of a tower. The observed frequency shift confirmed Einstein’s prediction that light experiences a change in frequency when traveling through a gravitational field, an effect known as gravitational redshift.

The Pound-Rebka experiment validated Einstein’s prediction that photons would gain energy when moving away from a gravitational source and lose energy when moving towards it due to gravitational redshift. Importantly, the experiment demonstrated that these shifts were consistent with the acceleration of gravity, and *did not require the application of relativity to explain the observed phenomena.*

**Conclusion**

The speed of electromagnetic energy is not an immutable constant but a dynamic quantity that adapts to its environment. By integrating historical perspectives, Maxwell’s equations, and the SEEP framework, we gain a deeper understanding of how fundamental constants like c behave under different conditions. This perspective challenges traditional assumptions and opens the door to new interpretations of space, time, and energy propagation.

**Future Directions**

Future research should focus on further testing the variability of the speed of energy under extreme conditions, such as near black holes or in high-energy particle experiments. Refining the SEEP framework and exploring the concept of Quantum Admittance may also enhance our understanding of gravitational and electromagnetic interactions, offering new insights into the dynamic nature of the universe.