**Gravity Emerges: Let the waters be gathered together – And there were tides.**

As the Energy Continuum unfolds, gravity begins to take shape—not as a force in the conventional sense, but as the natural flow of energy. This flow is shaped and slowed by the inherent viscosity of the medium, defined by the values of ε_{0} and μ_{0}. Gravity gathers the universe together, not through a pull but by guiding energy along paths dictated by this resistance. In this convergence, energy defines the boundaries of time and space. Gravity, intertwined with the Energy Continuum, brings cohesion to the cosmos, shaping worlds, stars, and galaxies as it flows through the dynamic field of energy.

**Introduction**

The Quantum Admittance (QA) concept introduces a novel framework for understanding the fundamental forces and properties of the universe. By redefining concepts such as Time, Energy, Gravity, and Space, QA offers a unified perspective that seeks to elucidate the behavior and interactions of particles, photons, and large-scale cosmic structures. Central to this framework is the idea that the impedance and viscosity of space—determined by the permittivity (ε_{0}) and permeability (μ_{0}) of free space—are critical in understanding the propagation of energy and the emergence of gravitational effects. This introduction outlines the foundational concepts of QA, with a particular emphasis on its interpretation of gravity, setting the stage for a deeper exploration of related sub-concepts.

**Abstract**

The Quantum Admittance (QA) concept presents a groundbreaking approach to physics, proposing that the universe operates under a coherent set of principles rooted in charge dynamics, space impedance, and energy propagation. QA posits that space emerges from energy interactions within the ε_{0}μ_{0} field, leading to a new understanding of gravitational phenomena and particle formation. By examining the interrelationships between Time, Energy, Gravity, and Space, QA provides a comprehensive model that challenges traditional notions and offers predictive power for future scientific inquiries. This section outlines the core tenets of QA, emphasizing its potential to revolutionize our understanding of gravity and the physical world.

**What is Quantum Gravity?**

**Quantum Admittance (QA): A Comprehensive Framework**

Quantum Admittance (QA) is a conceptual framework that reinterprets fundamental physical phenomena through the lens of charge dynamics and their interactions within the fabric of space-time. At its core, QA posits that the universe is composed of a continuous field defined by the electrical permittivity (ε_{0}) and magnetic permeability (μ_{0}), where energy propagates and manifests as observable physical entities such as particles, photons, and gravitational forces.

**Core Tenets of Quantum Admittance**

**Energy Disturbance and Propagation:** Quantum Admittance describes how an energy disturbance, manifesting as a charge, emerges from background noise and propagates independently. This disturbance alters local energy density, creating a differential that drives it through space-time. The electric constant (ε_{0}) and magnetic constant (μ_{0}) define the conditions for energy transmission through the vacuum, influencing the disturbance’s movement and imposing impedance based on energy density and space’s viscosity.

**Speed of Energy Propagation and Gravity:** In QA, changes in energy propagation speed, rather than the speed of time, are fundamental. QA focuses on how variations in energy density within the ε₀μ₀ field affect gravitational effects. As energy propagates through space-time, local energy density changes create differentials that influence gravitational phenomena. The relationship between energy (E) and mass (m) is articulated through E = m / (μ_{0}ε_{0}), linking Einstein’s equation E = mc^{2} with Maxwell’s c^{2} = 1 / (μ_{0}ε_{0}). This approach suggests that gravitational effects arise from variations in energy propagation speed rather than time changes.

**Gravitational Implications:** Central to QA is the concept that gravitational effects result from varying energy propagation speeds within the ε₀μ₀ field. As energy accumulates and interacts with this field, it produces gravitational effects observed as mass attraction. This perspective challenges traditional gravity models and offers a pathway to integrate classical and quantum physics into a unified framework.

**Historical Foundations and Unification**

Building on historical contributions from Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, Lorentz, and Planck, Quantum Admittance presents a comprehensive framework that deepens our understanding of the universe. QA integrates classical, relativistic, and quantum insights, offering a unified perspective that challenges conventional theories and opens new avenues for exploring the fundamental nature of reality.

By synthesizing these insights, QA not only provides a novel explanation for gravitational phenomena but also presents new possibilities for unifying physical laws across different domains of physics.

**History**

The development of Quantum Admittance (QA) concept represents a synthesis of key historical advancements in physics, integrating insights from pivotal figures whose work has profoundly shaped our understanding of energy, matter, and quantum phenomena. This historical narrative begins with the classical foundations laid by Isaac Newton and progresses through the revolutionary contributions of James Clerk Maxwell, Albert Einstein, Hendrik Lorentz, and Max Planck, each of whom has advanced our comprehension of the fundamental nature of the universe.

**James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)**: James Clerk Maxwell revolutionized physics in the 19th century with his formulation of the theory of electromagnetism. Maxwell’s equations unified electricity and magnetism into a single framework, demonstrating that light is an electromagnetic wave propagating through space. This work introduced the concept of the electromagnetic field and established a foundational understanding of how energy propagates through different media, setting the stage for later developments in quantum theory.

**Albert Einstein (1879-1955)** Albert Einstein’s contributions in the early 20th century, including his theories of special and general relativity, fundamentally altered our understanding of time, space, and gravity. Special relativity introduced the constancy of the speed of light and the interwoven nature of time and space within a four-dimensional continuum known as space-time. General relativity extended these ideas, describing gravity as the curvature of space-time caused by mass and energy. Einstein’s work suggested that space and time are not static but dynamic and malleable, influencing subsequent theories in both classical and quantum physics.

**Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928)** Hendrik Lorentz made significant contributions to electromagnetism and the theory of relativity. His development of the Lorentz transformation equations provided the mathematical underpinnings for Einstein’s special relativity, while his work on the behavior of charged particles in electromagnetic fields enhanced the understanding of fundamental interactions between energy and matter. Lorentz’s insights were crucial in shaping the framework for modern physics, including quantum theory.

**Max Planck (1858-1947)** Max Planck’s introduction of quantum theory at the turn of the 20th century marked a transformative moment in physics. Planck’s study of blackbody radiation led to the concept of quantized energy levels, providing the foundation for quantum mechanics. Planck’s constant became a fundamental parameter in the study of quantum phenomena, bridging the gap between classical and quantum physics and influencing the development of theories regarding energy and matter.

**State of the Art**

The contemporary understanding of gravity is predominantly shaped by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, which has been the cornerstone of gravitational physics for over a century. General Relativity describes gravity not as a force but as the curvature of spacetime caused by the presence of mass and energy. This framework has successfully explained a wide range of phenomena, from the bending of light around massive objects to the expansion of the universe.

However, despite its successes, General Relativity has certain limitations and unresolved issues:

**Incompatibility with Quantum Mechanics:** General Relativity does not integrate seamlessly with quantum mechanics, leading to difficulties in describing gravity at extremely small scales, such as within black holes or during the early moments of the universe.

**Dark Matter and Dark Energy:** The theory requires the existence of dark matter and dark energy to explain cosmic phenomena such as galaxy rotation curves and the accelerated expansion of the universe. Yet, these entities remain undetected and poorly understood, raising questions about the completeness of the theory.

**Singularities:** General Relativity predicts the existence of singularities—points in space where density becomes infinite, such as the centers of black holes. These singularities represent breakdowns in the theory, where the laws of physics as we know them cease to apply.

Given these challenges, several alternative theories of gravity have been proposed. These theories aim to address the shortcomings of General Relativity and offer new perspectives on the nature of gravitational interactions:

**Higgs Field Theory: **The Higgs Field theory, part of the Standard Model, explains how particles acquire mass. The Higgs boson, discovered in 2012, confirms this mechanism. However, while the Higgs Field gives mass to particles, it does not directly address the quantum nature of gravity, leaving the connection between mass and gravity at the quantum level unresolved..

**String Theory:** String theory proposes that the fundamental constituents of the universe are not point particles but one-dimensional “strings.” These strings vibrate at different frequencies, giving rise to the various particles observed in nature. String theory is a candidate for a theory of everything (TOE), as it attempts to unify all fundamental forces, including gravity, within a single framework. However, it remains highly theoretical and lacks direct experimental evidence.

**Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG):** Loop Quantum Gravity is an approach that attempts to quantize space-time itself, in contrast to string theory. LQG suggests that space-time has a discrete structure at the Planck scale, composed of loops or networks. This theory offers a potential path to integrating gravity with quantum mechanics, though it remains an area of active research with many open questions.

**Mach’s Principle and Mach’s Gravity:** Building on the ideas of Ernst Mach, this theory posits that inertia and gravity are not inherent properties of objects but arise from their interactions with the rest of the universe. Mach’s gravity suggests that the distribution of mass in the cosmos influences the gravitational forces experienced by objects.

**Teleparallel Gravity:** An alternative formulation of gravity, Teleparallel Gravity replaces the concept of spacetime curvature with torsion. It offers a different mathematical framework to describe gravitational interactions, with potential implications for unifying gravity with other fundamental forces.

**Variable Speed of Light (VSL) Gravity:** VSL theories propose that the speed of light may have varied over the history of the universe. This concept challenges one of the core assumptions of both General Relativity and the Standard Model of cosmology, potentially offering explanations for cosmological puzzles like the horizon problem.

**Eric Verlinde’s Entropic Gravity:** This theory proposes that gravity is an emergent phenomenon, arising from the entropic forces associated with the distribution of information in spacetime. Verlinde’s approach suggests that gravity is not a fundamental force but a result of the tendency of systems to increase entropy.

**Emergent Gravity:** Similar to Entropic Gravity, Emergent Gravity suggests that gravity arises from more fundamental microscopic processes, such as quantum entanglement. It views gravity as a collective effect, rather than a fundamental interaction.

**Bimetric Gravity:** This theory extends General Relativity by introducing a second metric tensor to describe gravitational interactions. Bimetric Gravity seeks to address cosmological issues such as dark energy by considering the interaction between two different gravitational fields.

While these alternative theories are intriguing and offer new avenues for exploration, they currently lack empirical proofs that can decisively challenge or replace General Relativity. Nonetheless, they highlight the ongoing quest in theoretical physics to develop a more complete understanding of gravity—one that unifies it with quantum mechanics and resolves the current puzzles in cosmology.

In this context, the Quantum Admittance (QA) theory aims to provide a fresh perspective on gravity, potentially addressing some of the limitations and questions that these other theories attempt to resolve.

**Postulates**

Quantum Admittance (QA) theory presents a unified framework that redefines our understanding of the fundamental interactions between time, energy, gravity, and space. The following postulates encapsulate the core principles of QA, providing a foundation for its application across various physical phenomena:

**Dynamic μ _{0}ε_{0} Field**: Space is defined by an ε

_{0}μ

_{0}field characterized by its electrical permittivity (ε

_{0}) and magnetic permeability (μ

*). This field is not static but dynamic, influenced by the presence and movement of energy. Space is an emergent property resulting from these energy interactions within the ε*

_{0}_{0}μ

_{0}field.

**Energy Propagation**: Energy propagates through the μ_{0}ε_{0} field, with its speed influenced by the field’s density and dynamics. This propagation is fundamental to the manifestation of physical phenomena, including gravitational effects and light propagation.

**Viscosity of Space:** The viscosity of space, a property derived from the μ_{0}ε_{0} field, determines the resistance encountered by energy as it propagates. This viscosity affects how quickly energy can travel and how it responds to the spatial distribution of energy densities. Variations in space viscosity play a crucial role in shaping gravitational effects and the behavior of energy across different regions of the universe.

**Quantum Dipoles and Charge Dynamics**: Energy and matter are composed of quantum dipoles, formed by charge differentials within the μ_{0}ε_{0} field. These dipoles represent the dynamic interplay of electric and magnetic fields, providing a basis for understanding particle formation, light propagation, and other quantum phenomena.

**Gravitational Effects**: Gravity arises from variations in the speed of energy propagation within the ε_{0}μ_{0} field. As energy accumulates and interacts, it creates gravitational effects observed as the attraction between masses. This perspective offers a novel explanation for gravitational phenomena, particularly in extreme conditions like those near “black blobs,” where gravitational acceleration approaches the speed of energy.

**Constant Time**: Time itself is a constant, but the perception of time varies due to differences in the speed of energy propagation. These variations are caused by changes in the ε_{0}μ_{0} field’s density and dynamics. The varying speed of energy within the ε_{0}μ_{0} field differentiates what we observe from what transpires, despite a fixed period of time.

**The Law of Invariance:** QA aligns with the law of invariance, asserting that the fundamental laws of physics remain constant for all observers. QA suggests that establishing a fundamental law of measurement could deepen our understanding of energy and gravity.

**Unification of Physical Laws**: By synthesizing the insights of Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, Lorentz, and Planck, QA offers a comprehensive model that bridges classical and quantum physics. This unification provides new avenues for exploring the fundamental nature of reality, potentially leading to groundbreaking discoveries and technological advancements.

These postulates lay the groundwork for exploring the specific applications of QA theory in the subsequent subsections on Time, Energy, Gravity, and Space. Each subsection will delve into the unique aspects of these concepts within the QA framework, illustrating how this unified theory can enhance our understanding of the universe.

**Requirements**

**Mathematical Consistency**: The QA theory must be mathematically consistent with observed physical laws and phenomena. It should integrate seamlessly with existing mathematical frameworks while providing new insights.

**Experimental Verification**: Predictions made by QA theory must be verifiable through experiments. This includes observable effects of energy propagation, gravitational interactions, and the behavior of quantum dipoles.

**Unification of Concepts**: QA theory should unify the concepts of time, energy, gravity, and space under a single coherent framework. It should provide a comprehensive explanation for the interactions between these fundamental aspects of reality.

**Predictive Power**: The theory should have predictive power, offering new predictions that can be tested and potentially validated or refuted by experimental data.

**Alignment with Historical Insights**: While presenting new ideas, QA theory should align with the fundamental insights provided by Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, Lorentz, and Planck. It should extend these insights into a more comprehensive understanding of physical reality.

**Scalability**: The principles of QA theory should apply consistently across different scales, from subatomic particles to cosmological structures, explaining phenomena at all levels of observation.

**Energy in the Framework of Quantum**** Admittance:**

*What is Energy?*

**The Essence of Energy:** Within the Quantum Admittance (QA) framework, energy is fundamentally rooted in charge differentials and dipoles, particularly as manifested in photons. These dipoles are the foundational units of electromagnetic interactions, defining the nature of energy at both quantum and macroscopic scales. The introduction of charges into the vacuum, facilitated by the properties of ε_{0} (electrical permittivity) and μ_{0} (magnetic permeability), underpins the dynamics of energy within this framework.

**Interconnection of Time, Energy, Gravity, and Space:** The QA framework posits that the traditional separation between time, energy, gravity, and space is an artificial distinction. Instead, these aspects are manifestations of the same underlying principles governed by the dynamic ε_{0}μ_{0} field. This field is not static; it responds to the presence and movement of energy, leading to the emergence of observable phenomena. In this unified perspective, energy is a key player, influencing and being influenced by the fabric of space-time.

Variable Speed of Energy: The QA theory challenges the conventional view of the speed of light as an invariant constant. In this framework, the speed of light (and more broadly, the speed of energy propagation) is influenced by the vacuum’s energy density. A higher energy density within the vacuum alters the values of ε_{0} and μ_{0}, thereby affecting the propagation speed of electromagnetic waves. This suggests that the vacuum is not a static void but a dynamic medium with fluctuating properties, directly tied to the admittance of space. This variability is central to both quantum behaviors and gravitational effects, offering a new lens through which to view energy’s role in the universe.

**Photon as an Energy Dipole:** The theory redefines photons as pairs of charge and anti-charge, emerging from the vacuum of space. These pairs generate a trailing wave, akin to the wake of a sailboat, driven by the displacement of charges over time. The energy density of these charge dipoles, constituting photons, is determined by the spin speed and the slope at the zero crossing of the sine wave as they interact with space’s impedance. This challenges conventional quantum mechanics, offering a novel explanation for energy quantization described by Planck’s constant.

Photon as an Energy Dipole: The QA framework redefines photons as pairs of charge and anti-charge, emerging from the vacuum of space. These pairs generate a trailing wave, akin to the wake of a sailboat, driven by the displacement of charges over time. The energy density of these charge dipoles, constituting photons, is determined by their spin speed and the slope at the zero crossing of the sine wave as they interact with space’s impedance. This challenges conventional quantum mechanics, offering a novel explanation for energy quantization as described by Planck’s constant.

**Mathematical Insights:** Combining Einstein’s **E = mc ^{2}** and Maxwell’s

**c**:

^{2}= 1/μ_{0}ε_{0}**E = m/μ _{0}ε_{0}**

This equation indicates an equivalence at the charge level, relating the ratio of energy to mass to the properties of free space. Since energy is conserved, E remains constant. Thus, mass m can be viewed as related to c^{2}. When E is constant, any change in mass results in a change of ε_{0}μ_{0}. Likewise, any change in ε_{0}μ_{0} results in a change in mass. This indicates that changes in ε_{0}μ_{0} are directly related to changes in mass and energy, providing a new perspective on the relationship between energy and gravity, as well as the behavior of quantum fields.

**Dynamics and Interactions:** Charge Entities and Field Disturbances: In the QA framework, charges are dynamic entities that interact with the vacuum, generating electric fields and influencing energy movement. These interactions create field disturbances that propagate as waves, with the speed and nature of these waves determined by the local values of ε_{0} and μ_{0}. Gravity, within this context, emerges from changes in the viscosity of space, which is influenced by the impedance or density of energy. This dynamic interplay underpins both the quantum behavior of particles and the gravitational effects observed on larger scales

**Photon Generation and Sidebands:** Photon generation is traditionally seen as oscillations around a zero point, theoretically creating sidebands. However, QA posits that photons are generated through discrete energy level transitions of charges, bypassing the zero-crossing and sideband generation typically seen in radio frequency transmissions. This insight redefines the nature of electromagnetic radiation within the QA framework and has implications for both quantum mechanics and gravitational theories.

**Admittance and Energy:** The relationship between energy concentration and the admittance of space can be expressed as:

**∂ _{E}/∂Y_{0} = -k*E**

Where:

**Y _{0}** is the admittance of space

**E** is the concentration of energy

**k** is a constant of proportionality.

This equation states that the rate of change of the concentration of energy with respect to the admittance is equal to the negative product of the constant of proportionality and the energy density. This relationship is crucial in understanding how energy organizes itself and interacts within the universe, and it draws a direct parallel between the forces of gravity and the energy speed gradient, suggesting a proportionality between them.

**Consistency Across Frameworks:** Quantum Admittance offers a fresh perspective on the universe’s fundamental forces, emphasizing the emergent nature of space and the dynamic interplay between energy, gravity, and other phenomena. By understanding these concepts through the unified lens of Quantum Admittance, we gain deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms that govern the cosmos, paving the way for new explorations and discoveries.

**Time in the Framework of Quantum**** Admittance**

*What is Time?*

In the Quantum Admittance (QA) framework, time is fundamentally intertwined with the nature of energy and space. Rather than being a subjective experience or a flexible dimension, as posited by General Relativity, time in QA is viewed as a uniform and constant interval—a fundamental aspect of the cosmos. This constant nature of time serves as a foundation for the consistent measurement and observation of energy phenomena.

**Time as a Dimension:** Time is considered an additional dimension, making the overall framework four-dimensional when combined with the three spatial dimensions. This four-dimensional energy continuum allows us to describe the behavior and evolution of energy distributions as they propagate. Unlike conventional frameworks, QA treats time as an invariant, much like a standardized unit of measurement, rather than a variable subject to distortion by mass or gravity.

**Time as the Rate of Action:** In QA, time is the rate at which actions or events occur. This contrasts with General Relativity (GR), where time is a variable influenced by gravity and the distribution of mass. QA proposes that instead of altering time to account for gravitational effects, the speed of energy should be modified. This approach achieves similar outcomes to GR but with a different conceptual foundation. The QA perspective emphasizes that time is not a variable but a constant, with changes in the speed of energy providing the necessary adjustments to account for observed phenomena.

**The Law of Invariance:** QA aligns with the law of invariance, asserting that the fundamental laws of physics remain constant for all observers. By establishing time as a constant, QA reinforces the consistency of physical laws across different frames of reference. This invariance suggests that our understanding of energy, gravity, and the universe can be deepened by adopting a consistent and unchanging measurement framework.

**Time and Electromagnetic Impedance:** Within the QA framework, time is closely linked to electromagnetic impedance, influencing the characteristics of energy, including spins, polarity, force, and mass. This relationship highlights the dynamic nature of time, where the speed of energy and its interaction with space’s impedance play a critical role in defining the universe’s structure and behavior. QA introduces the concept of massless photons and envisions a dynamic exchange of energy borrowed from the past and used in the future. In this context, time emerges as an immutable aspect of the universe, integral to the fabric of space and energy.

**Time as a Mirrored Plane:** Time in QA is conceptualized as a mirrored plane where the past and future coexist. This metaphorical reflection reveals a reversal of physical attributes, such as spins, polarity, force, and mass, offering insights into the behavior of photons and the transfer of energy across temporal boundaries. This conceptual ‘cosmic bank account’ illustrates the ongoing exchange of energy between past and future states, shaping the universe’s evolutionary trajectory.

**Challenging Traditional Notions:** QA challenges traditional relativistic notions of time, advocating for a deeper integration of time as a dimension intertwined with space and energy. While relativistic physics introduces concepts like time dilation and theoretical time travel, QA presents a fresh perspective on time’s nature, grounded in the principles of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics. Time serves as the fundamental canvas upon which the interplay of energy defines the fabric of space, with gravity emerging as one of the forces shaping the universe’s structure and behavior.

**Conclusion: **Quantum Admittance presents a unique view of time, suggesting that the reversal of time in the electromagnetic impedance dimension affects fundamental properties like spins, polarity, and force. This perspective emphasizes a balance of energy between past and future states, challenging traditional views and underscoring time’s essential role in shaping physical phenomena. By considering time as a constant intertwined with energy propagation, QA offers a novel approach to understanding the universe’s fundamental forces and behaviors.

**Space in the Framework of Quantum**** Admittance**

*What is Space?*

In the Quantum Admittance (QA) framework, space is conceptualized as a three-dimensional continuum where energy interactions occur. Unlike traditional views that treat space as a passive, empty expanse, QA theory positions space as an active participant in the dynamics of energy. The familiar spatial coordinates of length, width, and height are not merely abstract dimensions but are directly linked to the properties and behavior of energy within this continuum.

**Energy, Spatial Gradients, and Viscosity:** Within the QA framework, energy is deeply intertwined with the structure and properties of space. The concept of spatial gradients is central—these gradients describe how energy is distributed across space and how it interacts with its surroundings. The impedance and viscosity of space, influenced by these gradients, are critical factors in determining how energy propagates and interacts within the universe.

**Impedance of Space:** Impedance, in this context, reflects the resistance that energy encounters as it moves through space. This resistance is defined by the permittivity (ε_{0}) and permeability (μ_{0}) of the ε_{0}μ_{0} field. These parameters are not fixed but vary depending on the energy density and spatial gradients present in the environment. This dynamic nature of impedance suggests that space itself is a responsive medium, adapting to the energy interactions that occur within it.

**Viscosity of Space:** Viscosity represents the “thickness” or internal resistance within the spatial medium that affects the speed at which energy can move. This property is analogous to the viscosity of a fluid and plays a crucial role in determining how quickly energy can respond to and traverse spatial gradients. The viscosity of space influences gravitational interactions and energy propagation, making it a key factor in the behavior of energy within the QA framework.

**The Dynamic Nature of Space:** In QA theory, space is not merely a vacuum but an active field where energy’s characteristics, such as charge and dipole moments, are expressed. The permittivity (ε_{0}) and permeability (μ_{0}) of space are fundamental properties that define how energy and electromagnetic phenomena manifest. These properties are not constants; they vary with energy density and spatial gradients, making space a dynamic, responsive medium rather than a static backdrop.

**Role of Space in QA Theory:** Space, as understood in QA theory, is a medium where the characteristics of energy are not just displayed but actively shaped. The variation in properties like impedance and viscosity across different regions of space leads to observable physical phenomena, such as gravitational effects and the propagation of electromagnetic waves. This perspective challenges the traditional notion of space as an inert stage, presenting it instead as a key player in the universe’s fundamental processes.

**Simplifying Assumptions:** To maintain focus on the core principles of Quantum Admittance theory, QA adheres to the established four-dimensional framework of the physical and temporal — three spatial dimensions plus time. This approach avoids the complexities introduced by theories that involve additional or flexible dimensions, such as General Relativity or string theory. By simplifying the dimensional structure, QA provides a clear and consistent model for understanding the interplay between space, time, and energy.

**Gravity in the Framework of Quantum**** Admittance:**

*What is Gravity?*

Gravity has been historically understood through three major interpretations:

**Galileo** — *“Gravity is a force that acts on all objects, regardless of their mass.”*

**Newton** — *“Every particle attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of their masses.”*

**Einstein** — *“The curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of matter.”*

**Redefining Gravity in the Quantum Admittance Framework**

In the Quantum Admittance (QA) framework, gravity is reinterpreted not as a fundamental force or a result of spacetime curvature but as a consequence of variations in the speed of energy propagation influenced by the interaction between charges in a dipole and the surrounding electromagnetic fields (μ_{0} and ε_{0}). This is the time energy continuum.

**Energy, Not Mass:**

Contrary to traditional views that link gravity directly to mass, QA theory posits that gravity is fundamentally tied to energy. The relationship E=mc^{2} suggests that the gravitational effects we observe are a result of changes in the speed of energy cc as it interacts with mass. In this framework, energy is the primary driver of gravitational interactions, with mass acting as a secondary influence that modulates the energy’s behavior.

**Gravitational Acceleration**

In QA theory, gravity arises from small variations in the speed of energy (c) as it propagates through space. These variations are influenced by the impedance and viscosity of space, both of which are determined by the electromagnetic properties of the vacuum, represented by μ0 and ε_{0}.

**Two Complementary Perspectives on Gravitational Acceleration**

Rate of Change Perspective: Gravitational acceleration can be described by the rate of change in the speed of energy with respect to distance, encapsulated by the Quantum Admittance Gravitational Acceleration Vector:

**G _{v} = – d_{c}/ d_{x}**

Where:

**G _{v}** represents the rate of gravitational acceleration,

**d _{c}** represents the change in speed of energy,

**d _{x}** represents the change in distance.

This equation emphasizes how gravitational acceleration emerges from the spatial gradient of energy speed, showing a dynamic interaction over distance.

Instantaneous Difference Perspective: As a complementary view, gravitational acceleration can also be understood through the instantaneous difference between the speed of energy in open space (cmax) and the local speed of energy (cl):

**G _{a} = 1/(c_{max}−c_{l})**

Where:

**G _{a}** represents the instantaneous speed at acceleration,

**c _{max}** is the speed of energy in open space,

**c _{l}** is the local speed of energy, which varies depending on the gravitational potential in that region.

This expression captures the gravitational acceleration as an immediate consequence of the difference in energy speeds, providing a snapshot of the gravitational effect at a specific point in space.

**Equivalence and Veracity**

These two equations, though derived from different perspectives, describe the same gravitational acceleration. The consistency between the rate of change in energy speed over distance and the instantaneous difference in energy speeds reinforces the validity of the Quantum Admittance framework. Together, they provide a comprehensive understanding of gravity, demonstrating how it can be understood both as a continuous process and an instantaneous effect within the same theoretical structure.

**Emergent Property**

Gravity, in this framework, emerges from the interaction between energy, space, and the electromagnetic fields μ0μ0 and ϵ0ϵ0. These interactions govern both the rate of change of energy speed and its instantaneous values, leading to the gravitational phenomena we observe. This dual perspective on gravitational acceleration enriches our understanding by connecting both the local dynamics and instantaneous conditions that define gravity within the Quantum Admittance framework.

**Implications**

CA proposes that space and its properties may emerge from energy interactions rather than being fundamental constructs. This perspective could enrich our comprehension of the energy time continuum and its role within the broader framework of physical laws.

The visualization of Quantum Admittance illustrates the progressive emergence of energy structures, evolving from fundamental charges to complex formations. This process highlights the dynamic interplay between energy and time, offering potential new understandings of the universe’s fundamental properties and behaviors.

**Cosmic**

**Cosmological Models:** Many cosmological models, including those describing black holes, the Big Bang, and the evolution of the universe, rely on a constant speed of light. A variable ( c ) would require these models to be re-evaluated and possibly redefined. Energy dynamics would play a crucial role in these revised models, influencing the behavior and properties of cosmic phenomena.

**Cosmological Measurements:** Many astronomical measurements and calculations, such as the size of the universe, distances between celestial objects, and the age of the universe, rely on the constant speed of light. A variable speed would complicate these measurements and potentially alter our understanding of the universe

**Cosmic Expansion:** The current understanding of the universe’s expansion relies on the redshift of light from distant galaxies, which is interpreted as a Doppler effect due to the constant speed of light. If the speed of light varied, the interpretation of redshift data would change, potentially altering our understanding of the rate and nature of cosmic expansion. Additionally, a changing speed of energy would affect the energy distribution and dynamics of the expanding universe, leading to new models of cosmic evolution.

**Redshift:** Redshift is used to measure the velocity at which objects are moving away from us. A variable speed of light would complicate this measurement, as the relationship between redshift and velocity would no longer be straightforward. This would also impact the energy carried by photons, altering our observations of distant celestial objects.

**Spacetime Geometry:** QA suggests a re-evaluation of spacetime curvature and gravitational fields, potentially leading to refined models of gravitational phenomena and spacetime properties.

**Existing Theory**

**Relativity and Physics:** Einstein’s theory of relativity, which is foundational to modern physics, assumes a constant speed of light. A variable speed of light would require a major revision of these theories and could lead to new physics.

**Field Equations:** Einstein’s field equations in GR assume a constant speed of light. A variable ( c ) would necessitate a reformulation of these equations, potentially leading to new insights or corrections in our understanding of gravity and spacetime. The changing speed of energy would also impact the curvature of spacetime, requiring adjustments to our gravitational models.

**Equivalence Principle:** Current GR: The equivalence principle states that the effects of gravity are locally indistinguishable from acceleration, relying on the constancy of c.

**Black Holes and Cosmology:** QA could lead to new insights into black hole structures and cosmological models, possibly revising our understanding of event horizons and the universe’s expansion

**Gravitational Wave Dynamics:** QA’s influence on gravitational wave propagation could lead to a refined understanding of their sources and interactions in the energy time continuum.

**Time Dilation:** In GR, time dilation depends on the constancy of the speed of light. If ( c ) were variable, the equations governing time dilation would need to be revised. This could lead to different predictions for how time passes in strong gravitational fields or at high velocities. A changing speed of energy would further influence the rate at which time dilates, affecting our understanding of temporal dynamics in various contexts.

**Length Contraction:** Similarly, length contraction is based on the constancy of ( c ). A variable speed of light would mean that the degree of length contraction experienced by objects moving at high velocities would change, affecting our understanding of space and distance. The energy associated with these objects would also vary, leading to new insights into spatial contraction phenomena.

**Existing Mysteries**

**Fine Structure Constant:** The fine structure constant, which dictates the strength of electromagnetic interactions, is partly dependent on the speed of light. Changes in light speed could imply changes in this constant, affecting fundamental physical processes.

**Energy-Mass Relationship:** The QA framework may prompt a reassessment of the energy-mass equivalence relationship, affecting nuclear physics and fundamental particle theories.

**Current Technology**

**Communication and Navigation:** Technologies that depend on the constant speed of light, such as GPS and other forms of communication, would need to be re-engineered to account for variations in light speed.

**Insights**

**Galactic Goldilocks Zone:** The Quantum Admittance (QA) theory introduces a new factor into the Drake equation, accounting for variability in energy speed, impedance, and viscosity. This factor suggests the existence of a “Goldilocks zone” within galaxies where conditions for life are optimal. This zone is determined by a balance between energy speed and gravitational effects, with viscosity playing a crucial role in defining habitable regions where energy dynamics favor life.

**Black Holes:** In QA theory, black holes are characterized by dense energy concentrations with minimal energy speed and maximal viscosity. Unlike traditional models with singularities, QA views these regions as low-impedance areas where the influx of energy causes compression of energy rather than forming an event horizon.

**Big Bang and Expansion:** QA challenges the singularity-based Big Bang model by explaining cosmic structure formation through charge-based energy interactions and varying expansion rates. Viscosity introduces resistance to expansion, leading to a more gradual and continuous cosmic evolution rather than a singular explosive event.

**Self-Organization:** The universe is seen as a self-organizing system influenced by charge interactions and the viscosity of space. This resistance affects energy accumulation and distribution, supporting the idea of an older and potentially infinite universe. Viscosity helps explain the steady formation of cosmic structures without relying on a fixed expansion timeline.

**Scalability:** Quantum Admittance offers a novel perspective on cosmic scalability by suggesting that space has the inherent ability to form energy concentrations at various locations, not limited to singularities. This framework challenges the traditional Big Bang model by supporting a view where energy can continuously gather and organize throughout the universe. This continuous formation of energy structures is fundamental to understanding cosmic evolution and structure formation.

**The big Whoosh:** The QA theory presents an alternative to the Big Bang model by proposing a mechanism where the universe continuously self-organizes and accumulates energy. Rather than a singular explosive event, cosmic structures form through gradual accumulation and interactions of energy. The concept of viscosity, representing the resistance to energy movement, influences the rate of cosmic expansion and the formation of structures, offering a more flexible and continuous view of cosmic history.

**Redshift:** In QA theory, redshift is attributed to the stretching of photons as they encounter gravitational effects during their propagation. Instead of being primarily a result of space’s viscosity, this explanation focuses on how photons are influenced by gravitational fields, leading to longer wavelengths. This perspective offers an alternative to the Doppler effect, emphasizing gravitational interactions as a key factor in redshift.

**Quantization of Gravity**: In QA theory, gravity is quantized based on individual energy quanta rather than relying solely on mass. This approach suggests that gravitational interactions are linked to discrete energy levels, offering a framework distinct from conventional quantum gravity models. By focusing on energy quanta, this perspective provides a novel way to understand gravitational phenomena.

**Gravity as an Electromagnetic Artifact:** Gravitational effects in QA theory arise from underlying electromagnetic interactions, with viscosity influencing how gravitational fields propagate. This implies that gravity, as an electromagnetic artifact, is affected by the resistance of space to energy movement.

**Gravity is Focusable**: The theory posits that gravitational fields, similar to electromagnetic fields, can be manipulated and focused. The viscosity of space plays a role in how these fields are controlled, potentially leading to advancements in space travel and energy generation.

**Conclusion:** Integrating the concept of viscosity into General Relativity (GR) requires a comprehensive revision of current models. This perspective provides new insights into gravity, black holes, cosmology, and particle physics, with viscosity being a key factor in the interactions between time, space, and energy.

**Features**

**No Introduction of New Particles:** The Quantum Admittance (QA) theory provides a novel explanation of gravity without the need to introduce new particles. This approach contrasts with other contemporary theories that often rely on hypothetical particles to explain observed phenomena. QA adheres to the principle of simplicity, closely aligning with Occam’s Razor. By maintaining a minimalist framework, QA offers comprehensive explanations for complex cosmic phenomena while preserving the elegance and clarity of the model. This simplicity enhances its accessibility, making the theory intuitive for both specialists and generalists.

**Retention of Fixed Constants:** Unlike General Relativity, which occasionally requires the alteration of human-defined constants to accommodate varying conditions, the QA framework retains the integrity of established constants. QA leverages existing and well-proven foundational physics concepts to explain gravity, thus avoiding the necessity of converting constants into variables. This consistency with traditional physics strengthens the theory’s reliability and its potential integration with current scientific understanding.

**Quantification of Gravity**: At the core of the QA framework is the concept of “equivalent gravity,” which emerges from the acceleration of energy. This principle, when aligned with Planck’s discovery of energy quantization, provides a quantifiable relationship between gravitational acceleration and energy. QA’s explanation aligns with Planck’s foundational principles, offering a unified and quantifiable approach to understanding gravitational phenomena.

**Explanation of Gravity Waves:** The QA theory offers a coherent and detailed explanation of gravity waves, describing them as ripples in energy concentration caused by the movement of energy. This insight into the dynamics of gravitational waves enhances the understanding of astrophysical events such as black hole mergers, neutron star collisions, and other significant cosmic occurrences. The QA framework’s explanation aligns with the observations of gravitational waves, supporting its validity.

**Redshift Phenomena:** QA offers a cogent explanation for redshift phenomena by integrating the concept of entropy, restating the principle of “tired light.” ** Every time a photon (energy) is accelerated its wavelength is stretched.** This concept describes the gradual reduction seen in energy intensity over vast cosmic distances, as each gravitational bending of energy causes it to follow a longer path and undergo stretching.

**Redshift Phenomena: **QA provides a robust explanation for the redshift observed in cosmic phenomena, incorporating the concept of entropy and revisiting the principle of “tired light.” The theory posits that every time energy (in the form of photons) is accelerated, its wavelength stretches, leading to a gradual reduction in energy intensity over vast cosmic distances. This explanation of redshift through gravitational interactions and path lengthening is consistent with observed data, offering an alternative to traditional Doppler-based interpretations.

**Compatibility with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Observations**: The predictions made by the QA framework align seamlessly with the latest observations from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This compatibility with cutting-edge observational technology underscores the robustness of the QA theory and its applicability to real-world data, reaffirming its potential as a comprehensive framework for understanding the complexities of the universe.

**Solutions**

Several mysteries that remain unsolved or are inadequately addressed by General Relativity can be explained using Quantum Admittance (CA):

**Quantization of Gravity**: Quantum Admittance (QA) addresses the quantization of gravity by recognizing that the impedance of space, which governs the speed of photons, forms the theoretical basis. In this framework, gravity is intrinsically linked to the energy of photons, due to the grid in the μ_{0}ε_{0} fields. This aligns with the principles of Planck’s constant and the concept of quantized photons. Thus, gravity’s quantization is effectively understood through the quantization of energy, consistent with Einstein’s equation E=mc^{2}, which implies that energy, and consequently gravity, must also be quantized.

**Big Bang**: QA provides an alternative to the Big Bang model by explaining how matter and energy aggregate to form cosmic structures without requiring a singular starting point. The concept of gathering forces and self-organization in energy suggests a continuous and gradual process of cosmic evolution, rather than an explosive event. This framework addresses the varying rates of expansion observed in the early universe without invoking a singularity.

**Expansion**: QA’s model resolves the issue of the universe’s expansion rate, which has been difficult to reconcile with the Big Bang model. By negating the necessity for a singularity, QA offers a framework where the universe’s expansion can be explained through continuous energy gathering and self-organization.

**Black Holes**: In QA theory, black holes are characterized as regions of extremely dense energy where light is slowed by a highly dense μ₀ε₀ field. However, they are never so dense as to completely halt the flow of energy, as energy flow contributes to the formation of the field. Consequently, the speed of energy approaches zero asymptotically but never reaches it.

**Mechanism for Planck’s Constant**: Within the QA framework, Planck’s constant is explained through the quantum dipole theory. The spin of the quantum dipole determines the duration of the associated magnetic field. When the spin rate exceeds the physical half-wavelength of the radiating dipole, electromagnetic radiation becomes limited. This results in a mismatch with the impedance of space, leading to a reduction in energy output and thus explaining the observed value of Planck’s constant.

**Proofs**

*The validity of Quantum** Admittance (QA) can be supported through mathematical, empirical, and observational evidence, while also adhering to Occam’s Razor.*

**Perspective**: A foundational aspect of QA is the role of energy speed. By adjusting the speed of energy through changes in charge, a minor variation of 5.79 × 10⁻¹⁹ in ε_{0}, with a proportional change in μ_{0} (**μ _{0}/ε_{0}** Wave Resonance Constant), accurately reproduces the gravitational acceleration observed at Earth’s surface.

**Relativity Proofs**: Quantum Admittance is consistent with established proofs within its own theoretical framework. It acknowledges the validity of General Relativity’s proofs but proposes an alternative explanation: phenomena traditionally attributed to space-time curvature could instead be explained by changes in the speed of energy. This provides a novel perspective on gravitational effects.

**Emperical Evidence**: The Pound-Rebka experiment supports QA by demonstrating a redshift of light corresponding to changes in altitude. This shift aligns with a predicted gravitational shift of -4.92 × 10⁻¹⁵, suggesting that gravity influences the speed of energy as QA predicts. This supports QA’s concept that variable space permittivity (ε_{0}) and permeability (μ_{0}) impact the gravitational constant. Additionally, the instantaneous acceleration of massless photons under these conditions further corroborates this evidence.

** Observational Confirmation**: While General Relativity has been extensively validated, QA proposes a slightly different mechanism for observed effects, replacing the “curvature of space-time” with the “curvature of time-energy.” This substitution maintains mathematical consistency with classical principles while offering a new interpretation.

QA aligns with classical physics and existing empirical evidence without introducing new particles or dark matter. Observations from the LIGO experiment confirm the presence of gravitational waves, as predicted by QA. Furthermore, the theory’s alternative explanation for redshift suggests that the universe might not be expanding as previously thought.

JWST observations revealing large galaxies at much earlier times than previously considered possible support QA’s framework. Additionally, JILA experiments show that energy accelerates at the same rate as gravitational attraction, with high precision, confirming the relationship between gravity and energy. This observation supports Galileo’s insight that gravity relates to energy, not mass.

**Future Proofs**: As technology advances and observational instruments become more sensitive, we will explore deeper cosmic mysteries. One intriguing prospect is the existence of larger energy concentrations beyond current observational limits, which could illuminate phenomena such as rapid expansion attributed to dark energy and gravitational anomalies linked to dark matter.

** Occam’s Razor**: Occam’s Razor, which posits that the simplest explanation is usually correct, supports QA. The theory, while relatively simple, explains a wide range of complex phenomena effectively. Its simplicity, minimal mathematical complexity, and adherence to classical physics make QA a promising candidate for a new theory of gravity.

**Predictions**

The Quantum Admittance (QA) theory provides a fresh perspective on various cosmic phenomena, impacting our understanding of the universe in several key ways:

**Alignment with Observational Data:** The QA Theory’s predictions align with observations from the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes, including the detection of gravitational waves by LIGO. These observations support QA’s view of gravitational waves as a consequence of energy rebalancing and reveal that both electromagnetic and gravitational waves travel at the same speed. The framework’s alignment with recent observations from JWST further supports the notion of an evolving universe where new energy is continuously created.

**The Speed of Energy:** QA predicts variations in the speed of energy (light) under different gravitational conditions. For instance, closed circuit measurements on Earth show the speed of energy at 299,792,458.26 m/s, whereas measurements in empty space could differ slightly. Testing this hypothesis in various gravitational environments, such as on the Moon or at high altitudes, could provide insights into how gravitational acceleration affects the speed of light, offering a new avenue for experimental exploration.

**Reassessing Expansion:** QA challenges the conventional understanding of the universe’s expansion by attributing observed redshifts to energy interactions rather than dark matter or dark energy. This perspective suggests that the universe’s structure and expansion could be explained without invoking an expanding universe model, potentially leading to a reassessment of cosmic redshift and expansion theories.

**Galaxy Formation:** QA proposes that galaxies form from quantum dipoles and evolve independently of any singular universe-wide event like the Big Bang. This viewpoint aligns with the framework’s emphasis on energy self-organization and continuous cosmic evolution.

**Galaxy Gradients:** The theory predicts that galaxies exhibit energy gradients from their outer edges to their dense centers, regulating energy flow. At the outer edges, energy flow approaches the speed of light (c), calculated as the speed at infinite distance from Earth. This gradient influences observable cosmic phenomena and suggests an average energy flow across galaxies.

**Dynamic Universe:** QA introduces the concept of an ongoing creation process, providing a dynamic model of the universe that accounts for observed cosmic changes, such as the formation and evolution of galaxies. This model suggests that the universe is in a constant state of creation, challenging static views of cosmic structure.

**The Endless Universe**: The theory posits that the universe has no physical limits and challenges the accuracy of current observational methods. As measurement capabilities improve, QA encourages re-evaluating cosmological “constants” and exploring the possibility of an infinite and boundless universe.

**Age of the Universe:** QA challenges traditional concepts of the universe’s age, suggesting instead that the universe is an ongoing process with continuous formation of new structures and galaxies. This perspective redefines cosmic timelines and the interplay between energy and matter.

**Size of the Universe:** According to QA, the universe is not constrained by a fixed size, and new structures and galaxies continuously emerge. This dynamic view of the universe encourages rethinking cosmic expansion and the boundaries of space.

**Scalability and Flexibility:** The QA model’s scalability allows it to be applied across different physical scales, from cosmic to quantum. This flexibility could lead to a more unified description of physical processes and contribute to a comprehensive theory of everything.

**The Journey of Energy Through Space:** QA explores energy sidebands generated through deflection, contributing to phenomena such as redshift and blueshift. This explanation provides a unique perspective on particle fusion and redshift.

**Gravity’s Dual Nature:** The theory examines gravity’s dual nature, with both static and dynamic effects. Static gravity results from the “in situ” Y₀ field, while dynamic effects arise from evolving energy densities, as observed in gravitational waves detected by LIGO.

**Unveiling the Uncharted Spectrum:** QA predicts the existence of an uncharted spectrum of energy beyond known electromagnetic waves and particles. This proposition invites exploration of new energy forms that could offer insights into dark matter and other cosmic mysteries.

**Addressing Existing Gaps:** QA addresses gaps in General Relativity, such as dark matter and dark energy, by providing new insights into energy and matter interactions. This framework may offer explanations for phenomena not fully accounted for by traditional models.

**New Predictive Power**: By revising fundamental parameters, QA could lead to new predictions testable with current and future technologies. This predictive power provides a means to validate or challenge the theory through empirical evidence.

**Theoretical Innovation**: Focusing on energy dynamics rather than time could inspire new theoretical developments in physics and cosmology. QA’s approach may lead to groundbreaking discoveries and a deeper understanding of the universe.

**Experiments**

**Dual Plane Interferometry**: This experiment aims to measure gravitational redshift using a fixed setup with horizontal and vertical arms. Signals traversing these paths will be compared to assess the effects of gravitational acceleration on signal propagation, with expected frequency shifts in the vertical path due to changes in gravitational potential.

** Measurement of Gravitational Redshift and Y₀ Field Variations Using JWST and Atomic Clocks:** This experiment aims to measure gravitational redshift and variations in Y₀ field contours by synchronizing time measurements from atomic clocks placed at different elevations and orientations with observations from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). By analyzing the correlation between redshift effects observed by the JWST and time discrepancies among the atomic clocks, the experiment seeks to validate Quantum Admittance’s predictions on the influence of gravitational fields and Y₀ field gradients on space-time dynamics and energy propagation.

**Photon Splitting to Detect Anti-Electrons**: This experiment focuses on the disintegration of photons to delineate their constituent charges, specifically electrons and positrons. Using photomultipliers, the experiment seeks to measure and differentiate the currents stemming from these particles, offering potential insights into the fundamental nature of electromagnetic radiation.

**Further Testing Ideas**: Additional experiments such as Reflectionless Scattering Modes (RSM), transverse electromagnetic cells, laser ring gyros, and interferometry can be leveraged to explore the impedance or gradient of space. These tests may provide indirect or direct evidence supporting QA, advancing our understanding of energy as a property of space.

**Summary**

Quantum Admittance redefines gravity as an emergent property of energy flow through a dynamic medium, proposing that space itself is generated by moving charges. By focusing on the interplay between **ε _{0}** and

**μ**, it offers a new framework for understanding the universe, inviting a reevaluation of fundamental physical laws. This theory explains gravitational waves without introducing new forces, provides insights into the observed rotation curves of galaxies without dark matter, and aligns with redshift observations in a way that challenges the need for expansion or dark energy. These accomplishments underscore Quantum Admittance’s potential to revolutionize our grasp of cosmic phenomena.

_{0}**References**

This thesis is the outcome of a unique ‘null start’ methodology, a process in which the author intentionally begins from a baseline devoid of extensive external input, relying primarily on random data search, independent data binning, reasoning, experimentation, and logical deduction. The aim of this approach is to explore and develop new concepts and theories from first principles, free from the constraints and biases of existing paradigms. While this methodology has led to original insights, particularly in the development of Quantum Admittance, it also results in a thesis that features fewer traditional references to existing literature. The conclusions presented here are rooted in the author’s original thought processes, offering an alternative perspective that does not seek to directly build upon or refute established theories, but rather to propose a new framework for understanding fundamental phenomena.

First published as** Theory Z _{0}, **01/22/2021

Published as** Charge Admittance, **05/27/2024

Published as** Quantum Admittance, **08/26/2024