Notable individuals have made significant contributions to our understanding of the universe include (in approximate chronological order):

**Democritus:** Formulated the concept of the atom.

** Pythagoras:** Introduced a theory on geometric shapes, specifically the Pythagorean theorem.

**Eratosthenes**: Determined the Earth is round by measuring the angle of the sun’s rays at different locations.

**Copernicus:** Proposed the heliocentric model, placing the sun at the center of the solar system.

**Kepler:** Discovered the laws governing planetary motion.

**Boyle:** Considered the first modern chemist, a pioneer of experimental scientific method.

**Bacon:** Father of empiricism, championed inductive reasoning in scientific study.

**Galileo:** Used a telescope to observe celestial bodies and challenged the notion of mass and gravity.

**Huygens:** Developed the pendulum and provided a mathematical explanation for unobservable phenomena.

**Newton:** Deciphered gravitational forces, introduced the inverse square law.

**Euler:** Invented functional notation, Trigonometric functions, and Euler’s formula.

**Coulomb:** Investigated electrical forces and defined electric field constants with ε_{0}.

**Lagrange:** His principle of least action combined with Euler- Lagrange equations, leads to Lagrangian mechanics.

** Dalton:** Proposed the first homogeneous model of the atom and published the first atomic weights table.

** Avogadro:** Formulated Avogadro’s law relating volumes of gases to molecular quantities.

**Fourier:** Contributed fundamental insights into harmonic series.

** Ørsted:** Observed magnetism, deduced its force properties.

**Gauss:** Deduced magnetism as a field.

**Fresnel : **Proposed the wave theory of light and developed new lenses.

**Ampere:** Linked moving magnetic forces to charge movement.

**Ohm:** Quantified the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.

**Faraday:** Showed space could hold magnetic force in μ_{0}.

**Henry:** Worked on magnetism and introduced the concept of self-inductance.

**Lord Kelvin:** Known for his work in thermodynamics. Discovered the electron, the first subatomic particle.

**Heaviside:** Thought a lightweight because of his education, he did the heavy mathematical work for Maxwell.

**Maxwell:** Formulated equations unifying electric and magnetic fields, c = 1/√μ_{0}ε_{0} and field Z_{0} = √μ_{0}/ε_{0}.

**Boltzmann:** Laid foundations for statistical analysis in molecular studies.

**Michelson:** Measured the speed of light, conducted the Michelson–Morley experiment.

**Thompson:** Discovered the first sub-atomic particle, the electron.

**Minkowski : **Added the temporal dimension to space, developing four-dimensional space-time.

**Millikan:** Famous for his “Oil Drop” experiment where measured the charge of the electron.

**Rutherford:** Father of nuclear physics, credited with splitting the atom.

**Einstein:** Formulated E=mc² and revolutionized gravity as acceleration.

**Compton:** Demonstrated particle-like behavior of electromagnetic radiation.

**Schwarzschild:** Predicted gravitational radius and the event horizon of black holes.

**Lorentz:** Described the force on a point charge due to electric and magnetic forces.

**Tesla :** A pioneer in moving electro-mechanical energy, he transformed its methods. A Z

_{0}aficionado.

**Planck : **Originator of quantum theory, introduced the concept of quantized energy.

**Lemaitre : **Proposed the Big Bang theory.

**Hubble:** Postulated the expansion of the universe based on redshift observations.

**Bohr:** Developed the atomic model with discrete energy levels.

**Schrodinger:** Developed the Schrödinger equation, a fundamental equation in quantum mechanics.

**Nyquist:** Developed communication theory, laying the groundwork for modern telecommunications and information theory.

**Bose:** Known for early quantum ideas based on statistics and the Bose Condensate. Bosons named after him.

**Pauli : **Formulated the Pauli exclusion principle, fundamental to quantum mechanics.

**de Broglie:** Proposed wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics.

**Zwicki:** Gave us “tired light” as an alternative to expansion as a reason for redshift.

**Heisenberg : **Formulated the uncertainty principle, contributing to quantum mechanics.

**Dirac:** His “Large Numbers Hypothesis” link variable speed of light to the size and age of the universe.

**Anderson:** Found Anti-matter.

**Dicke:** Proposed the Variable Speed of Light (VSL) theory of gravity, allowing the speed of light to vary locally.

**Feynman:** Developed diagrams describing subatomic particle behavior, a significant contribution to electrodynamics.

**Shapiro:** Demonstrated redshift as a function of gravitational attraction.

**Hawking:** Developed a theory combining general relativity and quantum mechanics in cosmology.

**Clauser:** Proved Bohr’s ideas over Einstein’s in the “spooky action at a distance.”

**Penrose:** Revolutionized mathematical tools for analyzing spacetime properties.

**Thorn:** Known for his contributions in gravitational physics, astrophysics, and work on LIGO, the first gravity wave telescope.