Velocity of EM Energy Propagation


The speed of electromagnetic (EM) energy, often synonymous with the speed of light (c), has long been regarded as a universal constant. However, recent insights challenge this conventional notion, suggesting a nuanced and dynamic relationship influenced by factors such as impedance, gravitational forces, and environmental conditions. This paper explores the historical evolution of our understanding of c, examines recent discoveries challenging its constancy, and proposes a conceptual framework to reconcile these complexities.


The speed of EM energy, denoted by c, has intrigued physicists for centuries, representing a fundamental constant in our understanding of the universe. However, emerging evidence suggests that c may not be as constant as previously believed, prompting a reevaluation of its role in shaping electromagnetic phenomena.

Historical Evolution

From Galileo’s rudimentary attempts to measure light speed to Rømer’s groundbreaking inference of its finiteness, the quest to understand c has evolved over centuries. Maxwell’s equations and Einstein’s theory of special relativity further refined our understanding, yet recent discoveries challenge the traditional narrative of a constant c.

New Paradigms

Recent insights suggest that c may be contingent on factors such as impedance, gravitational forces, and environmental conditions. Analogies like the slope analogy offer vivid illustrations of these complexities, highlighting the interplay between force and friction in energy transmission.

Variable Parameters and Wave Resonance Constant

The variability of parameters such as permeability (μ₀) and permittivity (ε₀) challenges the notion of fixed constants in physics. Introducing the concept of the Wave Resonance Constant provides additional depth to our understanding, reflecting the intricate balance between these parameters and their influence on c.

Dynamic Relationship with Gravitational Forces:

The dynamic relationship between c and gravitational forces underscores the need for a Standard Earth Electromagnetic Parameter (SEEP) to account for variations in c across different environments. This relationship, captured by the Pound-Rebka experiment, offers valuable insights into the interplay between electromagnetic phenomena and gravity.

Baseline Speed of Light in Free Space

The concept of a baseline speed of light in free space, denoted as cfs, provides a reference point for understanding variations in c across different environments. Calculations derived from experiments like the Pound-Rebka experiment reveal nuanced differences in c, challenging traditional notions of a constant speed of light.

Conceptual Implications

The variable speed of energy has profound implications for our understanding of mediums of propagation, far-field dynamics, charge force dynamics, and fundamental constants. It prompts a reevaluation of our conceptual frameworks and opens avenues for exploring new perspectives on the nature of space and energy transmission.


The speed of electromagnetic energy, once thought to be a universal constant, is now recognized as a dynamic and nuanced phenomenon influenced by various factors. By embracing this complexity and reevaluating our conceptual frameworks, we pave the way for a deeper understanding of the fundamental principles governing the universe.