# Mixing

Mixing is the process of combining two electromagnetic (EM) energy levels defined by their frequencies to form additional frequencies through addition, subtraction, or multiplication.

Linear mixing involves the combination of two signals to produce a new signal that is the sum of the two input signals. The formula for linear signal mixing is: Fout = mf1 ± mf2.

In linear mixing, there are no new harmonic components generated; the output consists only of the original frequencies and their direct sum or difference.

Nonlinear mixing occurs when two signals are combined in a nonlinear system, producing new frequency components that include the sum and difference of the input frequencies as well as harmonics.

Nonlinear mixing can be described mathematically as the multiplication of input signals, leading to the generation of intermodulation products.

The frequency components produced in nonlinear mixing include:

Sum and Difference Frequencies: f1+f2​ and f1−f2.​

Harmonics of Each Frequency: 2f1, 2f2​, 3f1​, 3f2​, etc.

Regarding the specific components:

Nonlinear mixing is a process in which two or more signals are combined to produce a new signal that contains not only the sum and difference of the input signals but also new frequency components that are not present in the input signals.

Even Harmonics: Generally, even harmonics like 2f1​ and 2f2​ are not canceled out by themselves. They can appear in the output unless specific circuit design elements (like balanced mixers) are used to suppress them.

Odd Harmonics: Odd harmonics and intermodulation products such as f1+f2​, f1−f2f​, 3f13​, and 3f2​ are typically present in the output of nonlinear mixers.

This is why nonlinear mixing is often used to generate odd harmonics. It is a very efficient way to produce odd harmonics, and it can be used to produce odd harmonics at very high frequencies. Nonlinear mixing is used in a variety of applications, including radio frequency (RF) mixers, frequency synthesizers, and modulators. It is also used in some types of particle accelerators to generate high-energy beams. The fact that nonlinear mixing favors odd harmonics is important for the CA Theory.

Charge Admittance (CA) Theory: CA suggests that odd harmonics represent a fundamental frequency of the universe, acting as the dividing line in the spectrum between EM energy (photons) and particles as seen in the standard model, a theoretical framework that describes fundamental particles. This is the point in the EM spectrum where the charge voltage cannot be sustained due to the arc distance of the wavelength. At this point, a non-linear event occurs, causing a voltage breakdown. The magnetic field of the photon collapses into a toroid, and the electron is freed from the anti-electron.