# Speed of c

Introduction

The speed of light, symbolized by ‘c’, stands as a cornerstone in physics, shaping our understanding of the universe’s fundamental laws. Traditionally viewed as a constant in a vacuum, recent hypotheses challenge this notion, suggesting that ‘c’ may vary under certain conditions, particularly in regions of differing energy densities. This discussion delves into the dynamic nature of the speed of light, exploring its relationship with zero point energy (ZPE), Planck’s constant, and black holes, and their implications across various realms of physics.

History

Galileo Galilei: In the early 17th century, Galileo attempted to measure the speed of light by using lantern signals and mirrors. Although his methods were rudimentary and his results inconclusive, his endeavors laid the groundwork for future investigations into the nature of light propagation.

Ole Rømer: In 1676, the Danish astronomer Ole Rømer made a significant breakthrough by observing the moons of Jupiter. By noting discrepancies in the timing of their eclipses, Rømer inferred that light travels at a finite speed, rather than instantaneously, as previously believed. His calculations provided an early estimate of the speed of light.

James Clerk Maxwell: Maxwell’s Equations (19th century) unified electricity and magnetism, with one equation describing EM wave propagation and establishing a link between c, permittivity (ε0), and permeability (μ0) of free space (c = 1/√ε0μ0).

Albert Einstein (1905): Built upon Maxwell’s work and introduced the theory of special relativity, which postulated the constancy of the speed of light in all inertial frames of reference. Einstein defines the constant speed of light, yet it’s a notion never truly measured and deemed impossible to assess. Even Einstein recognized the limitations of his postulates using this assumption.

The Speed of c as a Standard

The values of SI units, including those related to the speed of energy, are typically defined based on measurements conducted at the surface of the Earth. Just as chemical reactions are referenced to standard temperature and pressure (STP), these measurements capture the prevailing conditions of our terrestrial environment.

It’s worth noting that the current speed of “c” (energy) has only been measured in a closed-course setting, presenting limitations in extrapolating its behavior across different environments.

Quantum Admittance Posits a Varying Speed of Light

Maxwell’s Challenges to Constant-Speed Narrative: Maxwell’s insight on ε0 and μ0 as regulators of speed challenges the constant-speed narrative. Engineers tune circuits using these, why not space? Not one scientific proof confirms constant light speed. Charge, a force without temporal constraints, suggests instantaneous effects. Elevations and atmospheric factors influencing speed measurements hint at a nuanced speed of light.

Dependence on Impedance: The parameters of permeability and permittivity, which determine the speed of light, are variables dependent on the density of space constituents. If the speed of light is contingent on the Admittance (Y0) at the measuring point, it implies that time remains constant while the speed of energy fluctuates.

c² and Space-Time Geometry: Maxwell’s quest for a vector representation of the speed of light, reflecting the composite nature of time and distance in energy propagation, arrived at the consequence of the relationship c² to the value of ε₀μ₀. This concept challenges traditional notions of space-time geometry and prompts a reconsideration of fundamental frameworks.

The Limits on the Speed of Light Dictated by the Cosmos

Controlled Medium and Speed Zones: Light speed might not be a universal constant. Within a specific medium, it could behave similarly to how traffic behaves in a speed zone. Outside this zone, light might accelerate or decelerate. Observers in different environments would perceive light moving at speeds dictated by the local impedance.

Planck’s Constant and the Longest Wavelength of Light: At extreme energy densities near black holes, Planck’s constant plays a pivotal role in regulating the lowest attainable speed of light. As energy density increases towards the Planck limit, the wavelength of electromagnetic waves becomes extremely short, preventing further compression and ensuring the consistency of quantum mechanics. This limit safeguards against the formation of event horizons and preserves the integrity of fundamental physical laws in the vicinity of black holes.

Zero Point Energy and High-Side Speed Limit: The zero point energy (ZPE) of the vacuum exerts a profound influence on the electromagnetic properties of space. Fluctuations in ZPE create an energy density gradient, imposing a high-side speed limit on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. This phenomenon highlights the dynamic interplay between quantum fluctuations and the speed of light.

To visualize this relationship and track the progression of values at various distances from the Black Hole towards empty space, imagine the dynamic nature of ε0, μ0 and their constant ratio over different spatial scales.

Quantum Admittance Posits the Varying Speed of Light is Responsible for Gravity

From the Quantum Admittance mathematical derivations it is shown the Gravitational Acceleration Vector: Gv​ = dc/ dx, Where: Gv represents the rate of acceleration, dc represents the change in speed of energy, dx represents the change in distance.

Speed of Light Related to Altitude

By linking the rate of gravitational acceleration to changes in the speed of energy propagation, Quantum Admittance offers a fresh perspective on the nature of gravity. Additionally, the observation from the Pound-Rebka experiment suggesting a decrease in the speed of gravitational acceleration with altitude implies a corresponding increase in the speed of light. This correlation underscores the dynamic nature of fundamental constants like the speed of light and their interaction with gravitational forces across different spatial scales.

Using SI units, the baseline speed of light in free space, denoted as cfs, is a fundamental concept in understanding the variations in the speed of light across different environments. It represents the speed of light in the far reaches of deep void space, where the influence of gravitational forces is minimal.

This is shown of light (c) exhibits a dynamic relationship with the gravitational constant (G), reflecting the influence of gravitational forces on electromagnetic phenomena. This relationship is captured by the equation g1 = g (1 – 2h/R), where g1 represents the gravitational acceleration at a given altitude (h), g is the gravitational acceleration at the Earth’s surface, and R denotes the Earth’s radius.

As altitude increases from the Earth’s surface towards empty space, the gravitational acceleration experienced by electromagnetic waves undergoes variation, leading to corresponding changes in the speed of light. This dynamic interplay underscores the need for establishing a Standard Earth Electromagnetic Parameter (SEEP) for precise measurement of fundamental constants such as the speed of light and ε0 or μ0.

Based on the Pound-Rebka experiment. the calculation for cfs is derived from the difference between the speed of light as measured on Earth’s surface at sea level (cmsl) and the gravitational constant (g):

cfs = cmsl + g

Where:

cmsl is the SI unit for the measured speed of light on Earth at sea level, approximately 299,792,458.26 m/s.

g is the gravitational acceleration, Newtons “g” often called simply standard gravity and denoted by ɡ0 or ɡn, is the nominal gravitational acceleration of an object in a vacuum near the surface of the Earth. It SI value is approximately 9.80665 m/s².

This calculation reveals that the difference in the speed of light from free space to that at the surface of the Earth is infinitesimal, approximately 1.00000003271146

Therefore, the speed of light in the far reaches of deep void space is approximately 299,792,448 m/s.

This nuanced understanding of the speed of light prompts reconsideration of fundamental constants and opens avenues for exploring the complex interplay between electromagnetic phenomena and gravitational forces.

A chart showing the relationship of the speed of energy with gravity is shown here.

Wave Resonance Constant and Variation of ε0 and μ0

Introducing a new value for ε0 and μ0 based on the ratio μ00, also known as the Wave Resonance Constant, provides additional depth to the discussion and offers insights into the electromagnetic properties of different environments.

The Wave Resonance Constant, represented by the ratio μ00 when wave energy is resonant (90 degrees), or when the impedance of space (Z0) 376.7305185 Ohms, plays a crucial role in understanding the electromagnetic characteristics of different environments. This constant, approximately equal to 141925.883602187, reflects the intricate balance between permeability (μ0) and permittivity (ε0) in determining the speed of light and electromagnetic wave propagation.

Conceptual implications

The concept of a variable speed of energy (c) has profound implications:

Mediums of Propagation: Fields serve as mediums for energy storage and movement, with unique characteristics influencing c within them. Overlaying fields can increase field density and affect c.

Far Field Dynamics: The far field is where energy becomes unbound from its source, manifesting as open dipoles that resonate with other energy photons. Interactions within the far field determine wave characteristics like frequency and amplitude.

Charge Force Dynamics: The interplay of ε₀ and μ₀ governs charge forces, dictating the speed, direction, and efficiency of charge force transmission, which are intricately linked to the surrounding medium’s permeability and permittivity values.

Nuanced View of Fundamental Constants: The atmosphere affects observations, mirages, and astronomical measurements. Laboratory precision may not translate to open space, demanding a nuanced view of fundamental constants.

Frequency Dependence: Evidence suggests that the speed of energy may vary with frequency, as observed in phenomena like light bending with prisms. Lord Kelvin’s hypothesis on frequency-dependent speed underscores the historical evolution of electromagnetic theory and reflects ongoing debates in contemporary physics.

Conclusion

The integration of Zero Point Energy dynamics, Planck’s constant, and the varying speed of light hypothesis presents profound implications for cosmology and physics. Insights garnered from these theories may refine our understanding of fundamental constants, reshape the Drake Equation’s predictions for extraterrestrial life, and offer new avenues for exploring the universe’s mysteries.