Space is the canvas upon which our universe unfolds, providing the stage for all cosmic phenomena we are aware of. It encompasses various designations, including free space, frame space, outer space, Euclidean space, linear space, topological space, Hilbert space, de Sitter space, and probability space. Each designation holds significance within its respective context.

Historical understanding

In 1543, Copernicus initiated a revolution in our understanding of the solar system by proposing a heliocentric model with his book “Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres.”

Prior to Galileo and his telescope in the late 1500s, our knowledge of space was limited to what the naked eye could perceive. Galileo’s observations marked a pivotal moment in our comprehension of space.

In the early 1600s, Kepler made significant strides in understanding the movements of celestial bodies and the concept of gravity. In the late 1600s, Newton formalized the prevailing understanding of gravity and connected it to the concept of force.

Coulomb’s work demonstrated that space can conduct the force generated by electrical charges. This property is commonly referred to as “vacuum permittivity” or “permittivity of free space,” representing the ability of an electric field to permeate the surrounding material. In the context of solids, this property is known as the dielectric constant and is designated as ε0.

Faraday contributed by revealing that space possesses the ability to sustain a magnetic field, referred to as permeability (μ0). He also established that this magnetic “Flux” field arises from the flow of electrical current. The motion of electrical current through a conductor can create a magnetic field, and conversely, the movement of a magnetic field can induce voltage across a conductor. It’s the interaction of charge, voltage acceleration over time, and current flow that constitutes electromagnetic energy.

Current understanding

Space is the expansive realm beyond Earth and its atmosphere, housing a sparse collection of particles, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, and cosmic rays.

Einstein’s theory of “General Relativity” proposed that the vacuum of space is devoid of any medium for energy transmission. His views on space have profoundly influenced our understanding of gravity, the expansion of the universe, and the theoretical existence of objects like black holes.

His theory of “Special Relativity” further challenged our perception of space and time, suggesting that they are not absolute but instead relative to the observer. This implies that two observers moving at different speeds will perceive space and time differently. For instance, an observer moving at nearly the speed of light will experience time passing more slowly compared to a stationary observer. Einstein’s work has inspired numerous physicists to delve deeper into the mysteries of space and time.

The prevailing scientific theory is that the universe originated from the Big Bang, a colossal explosion that occurred around 13.8 billion years ago. This event is believed to have generated all the matter and energy in the universe. Since then, the universe has been continuously expanding and cooling.

We gauge vast distances in space using “light-years,” representing the distance light travels in one year (approximately 5.8 trillion miles or 9.3 trillion kilometers). The observable universe is estimated to be approximately 93 billion light-years across, though its true extent remains uncertain due to our observational limitations. Recent findings from the James Webb Space Telescope suggest it might be even larger. Additionally, astronomers are still exploring the possibility of other existing universes beyond our own. The absence of discernible edges complicates defining space’s limits.

According to the current theory, space must be an energy superconductor as energy appears not to be diminished by a photon trip through it. The only energy loss we see is speculated to be related to the expansion of the universe where the sources of energy are going away from observers. There is no accounting for the energy losses seen in dielectric losses or the bending of energy as it travels through. There are no losses to entropy.” We know there must be some because we see gravitational bending. Certainly, there must be some dielectric loss with energy traveling through the visible dust clouds.

Properties of space

From measurable data, we understand that space contains energy, and from our observations, we infer the presence of mass. The patterns we perceive resemble an extensive and boundless fractal, surpassing the temporal scope we believe we can observe.

In the farthest reaches of space, billions of galaxies with vastly different sizes come into view. Predominantly, these galaxies take on spiral forms, devoid of a discernible overall orientation or polarity. The redshift in their energy signatures suggests that galaxies “appear” to be moving away from each other, with the farthest ones seeming to recede the fastest. Each galaxy houses billions of stars, each with its own solar system of planets.

The apparent random orientation of galaxies implies a lack of universal polarity. While individual galaxies may exhibit flatness, suggesting possible polarity, there seems to be no overarching orientation or polarity in space. Localized space appears to influence the rotational behavior of energy, as evidenced by the diverse characteristics of galaxies.

Space is typically viewed as a four-dimensional construct with three physical dimensions and one dimension of time. The curvature of space is theorized to exist in one of three forms:

Parallel lines converging on a curve, suggesting a closed, non-infinite space known as deSitter space.

Curved, where parallel lines diverge like a saddle, extending infinitely.

Flat, where parallel lines remain parallel and space is infinitely large.

Current thinking leans toward space being flat, supported by observations related to angles. Flat space is infinite in both spatial and temporal dimensions. It is the only space where quantum mechanics can be entirely resolved.

Astronomical observations indicate that space appears uniform everywhere; it is isotropic and homogeneous. Observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation suggest that space is isotropic to within 0.1%. In terms of energy speed, this corresponds to a deviation of 300,000 meters per second. However, below the 0.1% level, observable gradients or contours become apparent. To energy, the universe exhibits characteristics reminiscent of a textured dielectric.

Energy in space

Objects we perceive in the universe emit energy, visible to us as light or electromagnetic radiation. Photons are individual quasi-particles of light (energy).

Beneath this quantum level lies the “noise” of space, which we detect using radio telescopes. This noise lacks coherence and thus isn’t recognizable as energy. Some of it is identified as the cosmic microwave background, thought to be residual energy from the Big Bang, while other components may result from signal mixing at levels currently beyond our measurement or propagation capabilities.

Calculations suggest that photons are composed of energy dipoles, considering their small size and the quantum limits postulated by Planck. The fundamental unit we can measure is charge, although it is only measurable as part of the particles with which it is associated. On the other end of the spectrum, space can also be thought of as a vast ocean of energy. This energy is thought to be in the form of waves, with wavelengths that can range from the very short (such as gamma rays) to the very long (such as radio waves).

Mass in space

Based on our observations, these entities consist of compounds, which in turn comprise molecules that compose the periodic table. These elements are consistent across all observable masses. Within each galaxy, matter ranges in size from minute dust particles to massive stars.

The primary constituent is hydrogen, a natural candidate for the most abundant molecule in space due to its lightweight nature. Gravity compels hydrogen to occupy the least dense regions of space.

The primary constituent is hydrogen, a natural candidate for the most abundant molecule in space due to its lightweight nature. Gravity compels hydrogen to occupy the least dense regions of space.


Our understanding of space and energy is a dynamic field of exploration. While much has been learned, many mysteries remain. Energy propagation has always been an enigma. One historical idea was that there was an aether, a conducting medium that pervaded space. This medium was the ‘Conductor of energy”. This was challenged by Einstein’s theory of special relativity.

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the concept of the aether. Some physicists believe that the aether may play a role in explaining the behavior of gravity and other fundamental forces.

As we continue to push the boundaries of knowledge and technology, we may uncover even deeper insights into the true nature of space and its relationship with energy.