Waves serve as vehicles for energy transfer, seeking to equalize the energy difference between points.

EM waves are a fundamental part of our universe. They allow us to communicate, see, and understand the universe. The Y_{0} field is a promising new area of research that could lead to a deeper understanding of matter and energy.

**Intoduction**

Rather than viewing energy solely as a movement of a physical representation of the momentum of the original charge that represented the energy differential, it’s advantageous to perceive it as a transfer of gradients that represent that original movement of charge. This allows the inclusion of the inverse square law in the mathematics of its travel within the constraints of a quantum understanding.

**Characteristics**

EM waves are made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

The number of photons in a wave determine its amplitude.

The density of photons in a wave determine its impedance.

The amplitude of an EM wave determines its strength.

The frequency of an EM wave determines its color or energy.

Shorter wavelengths indicate higher energy levels.

**Frequency spectrum of EM waves**

Waves span a spectrum with varying frequencies and wavelengths.

Gravity waves are among the lowest frequency EM waves observed. Those detected by LIGO are at the sub audio frequencies winding up as a chirp.

Next are radio waves, which have the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies normally detectable my modern instrumentation.

Microwaves have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than radio waves.

Infrared waves have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than microwaves.

Visible light has even shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than infrared waves.

Ultraviolet waves have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than visible light.

X-rays have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than ultraviolet waves.

Gamma rays have the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies of all EM waves.

Particles begin to form at frequencies above gamma rays.

The frequency spectrum of energy spans from almost zero up to a frequency where energy ceases to exist as charge dipoles, as theorized by Max Planck. The frequency of energy is dependent on the impedance of space from which it originates. If different galaxies have lower energy field density, their energy may propagate at a slower speed.

Planck’s work on black bodies, which absorb all incident electromagnetic radiation, led to the concept of color temperature and the Kelvin scale. He showed that light energy is quantized, with each photon carrying the same amount of electromagnetic energy regardless of wavelength.

Absolute zero temperature signifies the absence of energy and attraction, linked to the compression of permeability and permittivity due to “gravity.” Accelerating charges create circular magnetic fields that store energy, forming cones propagating at the speed of light. The direction of the charge’s movement determines the counterclockwise rotation of the magnetic flux, representing the magnetic north pole.

**Structure of EM waves**

EM waves consist of alternating cycles of charge and induced magnetic fields, oriented perpendicular to each other.

With Y_{0}, waves are not charges moving but the μ_{0} and ε_{0} fields disturbed by charges accelerating that are driving energy into quantum equilibrium.

**Generation of EM waves**

Accelerating charges generate EM waves.

The duration of the acceleration signifies the wavelength.

The frequency of the wave is determined by the length of time the charge is accelerated in one direction.

This causes a magnetic disturbance of that pole length to begin its travel, displacing the adjacent magnetic quantum fields.

The disturbance of the ε_{0}μ_{0} field by a charge generates these waves, whose rise time corresponds to the natural frequencies of the charge and magnetic field.

A moving charge with a specific wavelength and frequency corresponds to a photon. Each wave generates peaks and valleys, forming a continuous wave pattern.

Electrons in atoms may additionally transition between different energy levels, which can produce electromagnetic waves.

In cases of single-direction charge movement, such as lightning or electron transitions, energy is stored at the beginning of the charge’s travel, containing all harmonics up to the wavefront slope. When the current ceases, the magnetic field collapses, resulting in energy propagation beyond half the wavelength and reflection back to complete the other half wave of the cycle.

**Wavelength**

The wavelength is the distance between two successive corresponding points in a wave train. It is measured in meters (m). The wavelength of a particle’s matter wave is related to its momentum by the de Broglie relation: λ = h/p. Where: λ is the wavelength, h is Planck’s constant, and p is the momentum.

There are several significant ramifications of wavelength quantization. It clarifies, for instance, why atoms’ energy levels are quantized. An atom’s electron energy is derived from its orbital angular momentum. An electron’s orbital angular momentum can only have specific discrete values, which results in quantization.

The quantization of wavelength also affects the structure of matter. For example, in a crystal, the spacing between atoms is determined by the wavelengths of the electrons within the atoms. The electron wavelengths become quantized, which leads to a quantization of the atom spacing in the crystal.

In addition to the above, it is worth noting that the quantization of wavelength is also related to the fine structure constant. The fine structure constant is a dimensionless physical constant that is approximately equal to 1/137. The fine structure constant is related to the strength of the electromagnetic force.

**Amplitude**

While each photon contains a single “quanta” of energy, they are considered gauge Bosons, thus more than one can occupy the same space i.e. EM energy compounds. Higher amplitude of total energy can be obtained at any frequency by moving more photon charge dipole at the origination point. Each charge takes power to move it through the impedance of free space, thus more power is used.

Likewise more energy can be transferred in time by moving the charges at a faster repetition rate. This has the disadvantage that propagation at various frequencies changes, thus some may not as efficient as some energy may be lost to various conditions.

**Energy carried by EM waves**

EM waves exhibit amplitudes both above and below their average and carry energy in discrete quanta, according to Planck’s constant, regardless of frequency.

Waves are typically measured in electric field strength as the RMS heating value which is the energy content of the wave.

The initial amplitude of the wave created by energy is dependent on the number of quanta originally disturbed by the initial charge force energy.

The number of quanta involved depends on the original energy disturbance and the time it lasts. These determine the orientation of the initial quantum field and the volume of each base cross member. The amplitude of the wave created by energy is dependent on the number of quanta originally disturbed by the initial energy of the charge.

The amplitude of the wave is dependent on the polarity, shape, and inverse square law falloff of the wave as it travels through the quantum field.

**Propagation of EM waves**

These wave disturbances, when free to propagate into open space, are impeded by the resistance of that space, as exhibited by their ability to construct a lattice of alternating charges and magnetic fields crossing at each wavelength.

When confined into channels such as wave guides or transmission lines, they will maintain amplitudes only diminished by the loss properties of the medium.

**Resonance of EM waves**

Alignment of the ε_{0}μ_{0} fields at 90-degree orientation must be maintained to obtain resonance.

Each wave cycle must align with the next to maintain wave continuity.

**QA Paradigm interpretations**

EM waves are a fundamental part of our universe. They allow us to communicate, see, and understand the universe around us. The Y_{0} field is a promising new area of research that could lead to a deeper understanding of matter and energy.

With the QA Paradigm waves are not charges moving but the energy contained in the charges that is moving through the quantum lattice of the μ_{0} and ε_{0} fields established by the energy. *Waves are the result on a number of photons resonant with each other in four dimensions.* *Waves don’t move, they move energy by displacement of quantum photons.*

With the QA Paradigm, the nearly symmetrical relationship results in nearly massless photons, satisfying Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence equation (E=mc^{2}). Antielectrons seen in the charge wave’s tail naturally balance the electron charge by moving in the opposite direction, contributing to the overall charge balance in the universe.