# Laws

The law of conservation of energy and matter

The law of conservation of mass states that the total mass of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be conserved over time. Mass can neither be created nor destroyed.

The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it can only be transformed or transferred from one form to another.

Z0 Theory acknowledges the conservation of energy, emphasizing its role in gravitational effects through the compression of ε0μ0 fields.

The law of conservation of momentum

Conservation of linear momentum expresses the fact that a body or system of bodies in motion retains its total momentum, the product of mass and vector velocity, unless an external force is applied to it. In an isolated system (such as the universe), there are no external forces, so momentum is always conserved. Because momentum is conserved, its components in any direction will also be conserved. Application of the law of conservation of momentum is important in the solution of collision problems. The operation of rockets exemplifies the conservation of momentum: the increased forward momentum of the rocket is equal but opposite in sign to the momentum of the ejected exhaust gases.

Conservation of angular momentum of rotating bodies is analogous to the conservation of linear momentum. Angular momentum is a vector quantity whose conservation expresses the law that a body or system that is rotating continues to rotate at the same rate unless a twisting force, called a torque, is applied to it. The angular momentum of each bit of matter consists of the product of its mass, its distance from the axis of rotation, and the component of its velocity perpendicular to the line from the axis.

Momentum conservation is upheld in Z0, particularly in its consideration of the forces influencing the speed and direction of energy propagation.

The law of conservation of force

Newton’s Third Law of Motion states, “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” This law describes what happens to a body when it exerts a force on another body. Forces always occur in pairs, so when one body pushes against another, the second body pushes back just as hard. For example, when you push a cart, the cart pushes back against you; when you pull on a rope, the rope pulls back against you; when gravity pulls you down against the ground, the ground pushes up against your feet; and when a rocket ignites its fuel behind it, the expanding exhaust gas pushes on the rocket causing it to accelerate.

Newton’s Third Law, as described in the law of conservation of force, finds resonance in Z0‘s recognition of the interaction between energy and matter, influencing their trajectories and behaviors.

The laws of thermodynamics

The laws of thermodynamics are a set of scientific laws which define a group of physical quantities, such as temperature, energy, and entropy, that characterize thermodynamic systems in thermodynamic equilibrium.

The zeroth law of thermodynamics defines thermal equilibrium and forms a basis for the definition of temperature: If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

The first law of thermodynamics states that, when energy passes into or out of a system (as work, heat, or matter), the system’s internal energy changes in accordance with the law of conservation of energy.

The second Law of Thermodynamics states that the state of entropy of the entire universe, as an isolated system, will always increase over time. The second law also states that the changes in the entropy in the universe can never be negative.

The third law of thermodynamics states that a system’s entropy approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero. With the exception of non-crystalline solids (glasses), the entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically close to zero.[2]

While the laws of thermodynamics remain essential for understanding energy transfer and entropy, Quantum Admittance may offer insights into how energy transformations affect gravitational phenomena.

The law of causality

This law states that every event has a cause. Z0‘s exploration of the interplay between energy, causality, and information could provide novel interpretations of causal relationships within physical systems.

The law of least action

This law states that nature always takes the path of least resistance. Z0 may offer alternative explanations for the observed paths taken by physical systems, shedding light on the underlying principles guiding motion and change.

The law of invariance

This law states that the laws of physics are the same for all observers. Z0‘s consideration of the fundamental constants of nature and their relationship to energy and gravity could lead to a deeper understanding of the universality of physical laws.

Equivalence principle

This principle, a cornerstone of general relativity, states that in a free-falling object, all observers experience the same gravitational acceleration regardless of their mass or composition. This implies that light, being massless, is also affected by gravity in the same way, regardless of its wavelength.

Z0‘s exploration of the fundamental nature of gravity and its interaction with massless entities like light could align with the Equivalence Principle, offering a unified perspective on gravitational phenomena.

Least action principle

The least action principle, also known as Hamilton’s principle, is a fundamental concept in classical mechanics and variational calculus. It states that the path taken by a physical system between two points in space and time is such that the action integral, representing the total energy of the system over that path, is minimized. In essence, the least action principle asserts that nature chooses the path of least resistance, or the path that minimizes the total energy expended by the system. This principle has profound implications across various branches of physics, from classical mechanics to quantum field theory, where it serves as a foundational principle guiding the behavior of dynamic systems. By minimizing the action integral, nature optimizes the behavior of physical systems, leading to the emergence of elegant and predictive mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena.

The uncertainty principle

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously. It states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa.

While Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle remains a cornerstone of quantum mechanics, Z0 may offer insights into how uncertainty manifests in gravitational interactions at the quantum level.