The Cavendish experiment(s)

Conducted by English scientist Henry Cavendish in 1797-1798, was one of the first experiments to measure the force of gravity between masses in the laboratory.

In this experiment, Cavendish suspended two small lead spheres from a thin wire, and then placed two larger lead spheres near them, arranged in such a way that they were attracted to the smaller spheres. The larger spheres were mounted on a horizontal rod which could rotate freely. By measuring the slight twisting of the wire caused by the gravitational attraction between the larger and smaller spheres, Cavendish was able to calculate the gravitational force between them.

The results of Cavendish’s experiment provided the first accurate measurement of the gravitational constant, G, and allowed for the determination of the mass of the Earth. Cavendish found that the gravitational force between the masses was proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, confirming Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

Since Cavendish’s original experiment, numerous follow-up experiments have been conducted to reaffirm and refine the results. These experiments often use more sophisticated equipment and techniques to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Some notable examples include:

Eötvös experiment: Conducted by Hungarian physicist Loránd Eötvös in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, this experiment compared the gravitational acceleration of different materials to test the universality of free fall. The results provided further confirmation of the equivalence principle, a key component of Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

Torsion balance experiments: Similar to Cavendish’s experiment, torsion balance experiments use a sensitive balance beam suspended by a wire or fiber. By measuring the tiny torque exerted on the balance beam due to gravitational forces between test masses, scientists can determine the gravitational constant with high precision. Modern versions of this experiment have been conducted by various research groups around the world.

Lunar laser ranging: This experiment involves bouncing laser beams off retroreflectors placed on the Moon during the Apollo missions. By precisely measuring the round-trip travel time of the laser pulses, scientists can determine the distance between the Earth and the Moon with great accuracy. This data can then be used to test the predictions of gravitational theory, including the gravitational constant and the behavior of gravity over large distances.

These experiments, along with others, have provided consistent results that support our current understanding of gravity and have helped to refine our measurements of fundamental constants such as the gravitational constant.

Ice Pail

In 1831 Michael Faraday demonstrated his “ice pail” experiment to illustrate the concept of induced electric charges. An insulated metal container was placed on an insulating stand. He then hung an electrically charged sphere from an insulated thread so that it was inside the pail. When the charged sphere was brought close to the pail without touching it, it induced a redistribution of electric charges within the pail. The opposite charges were attracted to the side of the pail closest to the charged sphere, and the like charges were repelled to the opposite side. This demonstrated that a changing magnetic field (produced by the charged sphere) can induce electric charges in a nearby conductor (the pail) without direct contact. This experiment was a crucial milestone in understanding the relationship between electricity and magnetism.

While Faraday proved that charges could be forced between particles, he did not realize that the charge forces between the charged rod and the pail were significant in the understanding of charge forces. These are the forces that are the core of the QA Theory.

Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young performed this experiment which suggests EM energy shows characteristics of particles and/or waves. This experiment consists of a monochromatic light source, two side-by-side slits, and a screen behind. When light shines through both slits, an interference pattern is seen, indicating two waves interfere with each other. When a slit is closed, a single line of light is observed. With both slits open and a “single photon” of light released, over time an interference pattern will appear..

Fizeau’s Experiment

This experiment, conducted by Hippolyte Fizeau in 1849, involved measuring the speed of light in a moving medium (water) relative to the source and the observer.

Goal: Measure the speed of light in a moving medium (water) relative to the source and observer.

Theory: The speed of light might be influenced by the motion of the medium through which it travels.

Apparatus: Light source, beamsplitter, toothed wheel, water channel, mirrors, eyepiece.

Procedure: Light was split, one beam traveled through flowing water, the other through air. Both beams were reflected from a distant mirror and recombined. The experimenter adjusted a rotating wheel to achieve constructive interference. By adjusting the speed of the rotating wheel, the experimenter could achieve a condition where the two beams recombined constructively. This indicated that the beam traveling through the flowing water took slightly longer to return due to the interaction with the moving medium.

Expected Outcome: If the speed of light is unaffected by the motion of the water, the two beams will recombine and produce the same interference pattern.

Observations: The speed of light in the moving water differed slightly from the speed in air.

Conclusion: The experiment demonstrated that the speed of light relative to the observer is affected by the motion of the medium through which it travels. This result supported the predictions of the Doppler effect for light.

Limitations: The experiment measured light in a moving medium (water), not pure space. It doesn’t directly address light propagation in a vacuum.

Impact: Provided early evidence that the speed of light might not be absolute, paved the way for further studies on light and relativity.

Michelson Morley

In 1887, Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley conducted a groundbreaking experiment using an interferometer to detect the hypothetical “ether wind,” a medium through which light was believed to propagate in space. The interferometer split a beam of light into two perpendicular paths, and the reflected beams were recombined to measure the phase difference. Surprisingly, the experiment yielded no detectable shift in the interference pattern, challenging the prevailing belief in the existence of the luminiferous ether.

This result played a pivotal role in the development of the theory of special relativity, as it suggested that the speed of light is independent of any external ether medium.

Paradoxically, this experiment only proved that light exercised the same speed at a point in space regardless of the direction in a particular plane that was approximately parallel with the gradient of gravity speed.

Millikan Oil Drop

In 1909 Millikan performed his oil drop experiment with Harvey Fletcher to measure the elementary electric charge (the charge of the electron). This experiment is about fields and energy levels.They found they could determine the charge on the oil droplet. After many repetitions, they confirmed that the charges were all small integer multiples of a certain base value, which was found to be 1.5924(17)×10−19 C, within 1% of the currently accepted value. They proposed that this was the negative charge of a single electron.

Setup: Millikan’s experiment involved a closed chamber filled with air, with two parallel metal plates arranged horizontally. The upper plate was connected to a voltage source, creating an electric field between the plates. A small hole in the upper plate allowed fine droplets of oil to be sprayed into the chamber.

Oil Droplets: The oil droplets sprayed into the chamber were initially electrically neutral. Some of these droplets passed through an opening in the upper plate and entered the space between the plates.

Observation: Using a microscope, Millikan observed the motion of the oil droplets between the plates. He illuminated the chamber with a light source, which allowed him to see the droplets against a dark background. By observing the motion of the droplets, he could determine their behavior in the electric field.

Electric Field and Gravity: Under the influence of the electric field, some droplets acquired a net electric charge due to the transfer of electrons from the surrounding air molecules. This charge caused the droplets to experience an electric force that opposed the force of gravity.

Equilibrium: Millikan adjusted the strength of the electric field until the electric force on the droplets exactly balanced the force of gravity, causing the droplets to remain suspended in mid-air. By measuring the electric field strength required to achieve this equilibrium and knowing the mass of the droplets, Millikan could calculate the electric charge on each droplet.

Charge Quantization: Through careful measurements and calculations, Millikan found that the electric charge on the droplets was always a multiple of a fundamental unit of charge, which he identified as the charge of a single electron.

Conclusion: Millikan’s experiment provided the first direct measurement of the charge of individual electrons and demonstrated that electric charge is quantized, meaning it occurs in discrete units. This groundbreaking work contributed significantly to our understanding of the fundamental properties of matter.

Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment remains one of the most famous and important experiments in the history of physics, earning him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1923.

Anderson Anti-matter

Positron Discovery: Anderson conducted his research at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He used a cloud chamber, a device that detects the presence of charged particles by tracking their paths in a supersaturated vapor.

Particle Tracks: In Anderson’s experiment, cosmic rays entered the cloud chamber and interacted with its contents, leaving trails of ionized particles. These trails were made visible by the condensation of vapor along the paths of the charged particles.

Mirrored Tracks: While analyzing the particle tracks, Anderson observed some tracks that curved in the opposite direction compared to the majority of particles. These tracks suggested the existence of particles with positive charge but negative mass, which was highly unusual.

Identification: Anderson carefully studied these anomalous tracks and concluded that they were caused by particles similar in mass to electrons but with positive charge. He named these particles positrons.

Antimatter Confirmation: Further experiments and analysis confirmed that positrons were indeed antiparticles of electrons, with opposite charge but identical mass.

Pound and Rebka

One of the last of the classical tests of general relativity was performed in 1959. This experiment measured the color shift of light moving in a gravitational field. They sourced energy from the top of a tower and measured the frequency shift at the bottom. The frequency shift was tiny but in agreement with the theoretical prediction

Shapiro Delay

1964 Shapiro found predictable delays in radar signals sent close to planetary bodies. Both his experiment and gravitational lensing show once energy is bent it leaves with less energy.

The Hafele-Keating Experiment

This 1971 experiment tested the predictions of time dilation in special relativity. It involved flying atomic clocks around the world on commercial airliners in opposite directions and comparing their time readings to stationary atomic clocks on the ground. The experiment provided direct evidence for time dilation, confirming one of the fundamental predictions of special relativity.


In 2011, The Oscillation Project with Emulsion-Racking Apparatus played a crucial role in investigating tau neutrinos resulting from muon neutrino oscillations. Using the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) neutrino beam, OPERA observed muon neutrinos seemingly exceeding the speed of light in September 2011, sparking curiosity and subsequent independent experiments that verified neutrinos’ speed matches that of light. The OPERA team updated their findings in July 2012, confirming neutrinos’ consistency with the speed of light after careful analysis. Although not proving the variable speed of light, the experiment validated neutrinos’ electromagnetic nature, subject to μ0ε0 fields.

Ongoing research continues to explore neutrino mysteries and their relation to light’s speed, striving for conclusive evidence and expanding upon previous findings.

Electron Symmetry

2011 Scientists made the most accurate measurement yet of the shape of the humble electron, finding that it is almost a perfect sphere. The experiment suggests that if the electron were magnified to the size of the solar system, it would still appear spherical to within the width of a human hair.

2022 JILA Experiment– Atomic clock confirms Z0 Gradients

Atomic clocks, which count seconds by measuring the frequency of radiation emitted when electrons around an atom change energy states, can detect these minute gravitational effects. These have been used recently to detect what might be quantum gravity.

Tobias Bothwell and his colleagues at JILA in Boulder, Colorado separated hundreds of thousands of strontium atoms into “pancake-shaped” blobs of 30 atoms. They used optical light to trap these into a vertical stack 1 millimeter high. Then they shone a laser on the stack and measured the scattered light with a high-speed camera.

Because the atoms were arranged vertically, Earth’s gravity caused the frequency of oscillations in each group to shift by a different amount, an effect called gravitational redshift. At the top of the clock, a second was measured as 10-19 of a second longer than it was at the bottom. This means if you were to run the clock for the age of the universe – about 14 billion years – it would only be off by 0.1 seconds, says team member Jun Ye at JILA.This confirms the idea that variation of Z0 at changing altitudes changes the oscillation periods of energy.

The experiment’s findings are consistent with the Z0 Theory hypothesis, which states that space’s admittance, Y0, varies with height.

Paradoxically, this experiment is somewhat like Pound Rebka and shows that the oscillation frequency speed is dependent on a change in mass because that could be explained by Newton’s gravity and may not be an indicator of relativity.

Reflectionless Scattering Modes (RSM)

A new method of understanding the areas of energy used to develop understanding of Z0 are the Reflectionless Scattering Modes (RSM), experiments being carried out by several scientific teams.

RSM experiments involve creating a chamber in which the impedance of space is carefully controlled. This allows scientists to study how light waves interact with matter under different conditions. By observing how light waves are scattered and reflected, scientists can learn about the properties of the medium in which they are propagating.