Apparatus

Clocks

The history of clocks can be traced back to ancient times, but the first mechanical clocks were not invented until the 14th century in Europe. These early clocks were very large and heavy, and they were only accurate to within a few minutes per day.

In the 17th century, the pendulum clock was invented. This made clocks much more accurate, but they were still very expensive and only available to the wealthy.

In the 19th century, the mass production of clocks began. This made clocks more affordable and accessible to a wider range of people.

In the 20th century, quartz clocks were invented. Quartz clocks are very accurate and relatively inexpensive. They are now the most common type of clock in the world.

Here is a timeline of some of the key events in the history of clocks:

3000 BC: The first sundials are invented in Egypt.

1500 BC: The first water clocks are invented in China.

1300 AD: The first mechanical clocks are invented in Europe.

1656: The pendulum clock is invented by Christiaan Huygens.

1760: The first mass-produced clocks are made in England.

1883: The first quartz clock is invented.

1929: The first atomic clock is invented.

1960s: Digital clocks are invented.

1970s: Quartz watches become popular.

1980s: Digital wristwatches become popular.

1990s: GPS clocks are invented.

Today: Smartphones and other electronic devices have built-in clocks that are very accurate.

Clocks have played an important role in human history. They have helped us to keep track of time, organize our lives, and navigate the world. Clocks are now an essential part of our everyday lives, and they continue to evolve with new technology.

Lenses

The first known lenses being made of polished crystal or glass. The earliest evidence of lenses comes from Mesopotamia, where they were used in magnifying glasses and burning glasses.

The ancient Greeks and Romans also used lenses, but they did not understand the principles of refraction. It was not until the 11th century that the Arab scientist Ibn al-Haytham discovered how lenses work.

In the 13th century, the first eyeglasses were invented in Italy. Early eyeglasses were made of two convex lenses, and they were used to correct farsightedness. Concave lenses were invented in the 16th century to correct nearsightedness.

The development of lenses continued throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. In the 17th century, the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens invented the compound microscope, which uses two lenses to magnify objects. The first telescopes were also invented in the 17th century. During this period Fresnel developed lenses with concentric rings to make them much thinner.

In the 18th century, the English scientist John Dollond developed the achromatic lens, which reduces chromatic aberration. This made it possible to build better microscopes and telescopes.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, lens technology continued to develop. New types of lenses were invented, such as contact lenses and intraocular lenses. Lenses were also made from new materials, such as plastic and glass.

Today, lenses are used in a wide variety of applications, including eyeglasses, microscopes, telescopes, cameras, and medical devices. Lenses have played a vital role in the development of science and technology, and they continue to be an important part of our world.

Here are some of the variations of lenses that have been developed over the years:

Convex lenses: These lenses are thicker in the middle than at the edges. They converge light rays, which makes them useful for magnifying objects.

Concave lenses: These lenses are thinner in the middle than at the edges. They diverge light rays, which makes them useful for correcting nearsightedness.

Fresnel lenses are a type of lens that uses a series of concentric grooves to refract light. This makes them much thinner and lighter than traditional lenses, but they can still produce high-quality images. Fresnel lenses are often used in applications where weight and space are critical, such as in cameras and binoculars.

Aspheric lenses: These lenses have a non-spherical surface. They can be used to reduce aberrations, which makes them useful for high-quality optical devices.

Gradient-index lenses: These lenses have a refractive index that varies gradually. They can be used to create complex optical effects, such as zoom lenses.

Metamaterial lenses: These lenses are made of artificial materials that have unusual optical properties. They can be used to create lenses that are thinner and lighter than traditional lenses, and they can also be used to create lenses that can focus light in ways that were not previously possible.

Electroscopes

Unveiling the Essence of Charge Detection.

Telescopes

1608 The invention of the telescope revolutionized astronomy and allowed astronomers like Galileo to make groundbreaking observations of the solar system. Over time, telescopes have evolved, offering larger capture areas and increased magnification, leading to the discovery of smaller and more distant celestial objects.

1609 Galileo heard about Hans Lippershey’s ingenious device via his French associate Jacques Bovedere. He immediately set about designing and building his own telescope, although he had never seen Han’s device. He made significant improvements in his telescope’s performance reaching magnifications of around 20 times.

Galileo would be the first recorded person to point his telescope skyward to see the cratered surfaces of the moon. His observations also led him to discover the rings of Saturn, sunspots, and four of Jupiter’s moons, as well as a glimpse of diffuse light arching across the sky which would later be known as the Milky Way.

1668 Sir Isaac Newton built on the work of his predecessors, notably Kepler, and reasoned that telescopes should use a series of mirrors rather than lenses. He believed, amongst other things, this setup would solve the chromatic aberration issues that plagued refracting telescopes.

1729 Englishman, Chester Moore Hall, greatly reduced the chromatic aberration of refracting telescopes when he introduced a new form of lens. This lens consisted of two types of glass, the crown and flint, that were cemented together.

1789, the first giant reflector telescope was built in the UK by William Herschel. He oversaw the construction of a 40 ft (12 meters) long Newtonian-based reflector telescope.

1844 William Parsons built a series of telescopes at his castle home in Ireland. five metal mirrors with a six-foot (1.8 meters) diameter and weighing over 4 tonnes. The resulting reflecting telescope, known as the “Leviathan of Parsonstown,” had a tube 49 ft (15 meters) long suspended between massive masonry walls, looking more like a fortification than a piece of scientific apparatus. He used this gigantic telescope for many years to study the night sky. He was particularly interested in the study of ‘nebulae’ and became the first person to observe the spiral arms of the M51 nebula.

1897 The Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, was founded by George Ellery Hale and paid for by Charles T. Yerkes. The telescope and housing are a true melding of science and art and areare sometimes called “the birthplace of astrophysics.” Yerkes marks a significant change in thinking around exploration using telescopes, from a largely amateur hobby to a dedicated and severe scientific pursuit. This telescope pushed the limits of the maximum size of refracting telescopes, as it used the usingmost giant lenses possible without having the entire apparatus collapse under its weight. The telescope used an impressive 3.34 ft (102 cm) diameter doublet lens, which is still the largest of its kind used for astronomy.

1930 The radio telescope was born when a Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer, Karl Guthe Jansky, was tasked with finding the source of static that interfered with radio and telephone services. Jansky built an array of dipoles and reflectors designed to receive a shortwave radio signal at around 20.5 MHz. The entire apparatus was set up on a turntable, allowing it to turn 360 degrees. Jansky’s “merry-go-round,” as it came to be known, measured 98 ft (30 meters) in diameter and stood 20 ft (6 meters) tall.

1950’s British Astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell made plans to build a large radio telescopea fter working on radar during the Second World War, Bernard saw the great scientific potential of radio telescopes in studying the cosmos. His vision was to build a vast 250-foot (76 meters) diameter dish radio telescope that could be aimed at any point in the sky. After a series of big technical and financial problems, it was finally built in the summer of 1957 at Jodrell Bank in the UK.

This iconic scientific apparatus has since played an essential role in the research of meteors, quasars, pulsars, and was heavily involved with the tracking of space probes at the start of the Space Age.

For later telescopes and telescope-like technology, see “State of Art” as new telescopes are being developed yearly, each of which improves the gain and bandwidth sensitivity with new information received from them daily.

1990 The Hubble Space Telescope

Hubble is a large, space-based observatory that has changed our understanding of the cosmos since its launch. It is one of NASA’s Great Observatories. Hubble orbits Earth at an altitude of about 350 miles (560 kilometers), above most of the Earth’s atmosphere. This allows it to capture images with much sharper resolution than ground-based telescopes. Hubble has also been responsible for some of the most iconic images in astronomy, such as the Pillars of Creation and the Hubble Deep Field.

1999 The Chandra X-ray Observatory

Chandra is a space telescope designed to detect X-rays from celestial objects. Chandra is the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built. It can detect X-ray sources that are 100 times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope. This allows Chandra to study a wide range of celestial objects. Chandra is a vital tool for astronomers studying the universe. It has helped us to better understand the nature of black holes, the physics of supernovae, and the structure and evolution of galaxy clusters.

2002 LIGO

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory designed to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool. Two large observatories were built in the United States with the aim of detecting gravitational waves by laser interferometry.

The original LIGO did not detect any gravity waves. The Advanced LIGO Project to enhance the original LIGO detectors began in 2008. In September 2015, the LIGO experiments completed a 5-year overhaul to improve sensitivity.

On 11 February 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration published a paper about the detection of gravitational waves, from a signal detected at 09.51 UTC on 14 September 2015 of two ~30 solar mass black holes merging about 1.3 billion light-years from Earth

2019 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)

EHT, a network of radio telescopes around the world combines data from several very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) stations around Earth Their angular resolution sufficient to observe objects the size of a supermassive black hole’s event horizon.

The project’s observational targets included the two black holes with the largest angular diameter as observed from Earth: the black hole at the center of the supergiant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 and Sagittarius A at the center of the Milky Way. In 2019, the EHT released the first image of a black hole.

2022 The James Webb Space telescope (JWST)

The Webb was launched on 25 December 2021 on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. In January 2022 it arrived at its destination, a solar orbit near the Sun–Earth L2 Lagrange point, about 1.5 million kilometers (930,000 mi) from Earth. Its actual position varies between about 250,000 and 832,000 km (155,000–517,000 mi) from L2 as it orbits, keeping it out of both Earth and Moon’s shadow.

JWST represents a significant advancement in space telescopes. With larger mirrors and improved camera technology offering enhanced sensitivity and a wider bandwidth for astronomical observations, it has already shown the effects of gravity on electromagnetic radiation with clear pictures of gravitational lensing. Additionally, it has shown vast new galaxies existed at what we thought was the beginning of the universe, bringing into question the Big Bang theory.

Objects near this Sun-Earth L2 point can orbit the Sun in synchrony with the Earth, allowing the telescope to remain at a roughly constant distance with continuous orientation of its sunshield and equipment bus toward the Sun, Earth, and Moon. Combined with its wide shadow-avoiding orbit, the telescope can simultaneously block incoming heat and light from all three of these bodies and avoid changes in temperature from Earth and Moon shadows that would affect the structure, yet maintain solar power and Earth communications on its sun-facing side.

Objects near this Sun-Earth L2 point can orbit the Sun in synchrony with the Earth, allowing the telescope to remain at a roughly constant distance with continuous orientation of its sunshield and equipment bus toward the Sun, Earth, and Moon. Combined with its wide shadow-avoiding orbit, the telescope can simultaneously block incoming heat and light from all three of these bodies and avoid changes in temperature from Earth and Moon shadows that would affect the structure, yet maintain solar power and Earth communications on its sun-facing side.

Webb’s primary mirror consists of 18 hexagonal mirror segments made of gold-plated beryllium, which together create a 6.5-meter-diameter (21-foot) mirror. Webb is designed primarily for near-infrared astronomy to detect objects early in the history of the “Big Bang” universe.

The telescope’s first image was released to the public on 11 July 2022. The buzz among professional astronomers like me has been electric since members of the Webb team shared tantalizing test images. And the real images are even better than anyone could have hoped for. During the presentation where the first images were released, Webb project scientist Jane Rigby remarked, “For Webb, there is no blank sky; everywhere it looks it sees distant galaxies.” Most of those galaxies were invisible until now.

The JWST initial results suggest that stars and galaxies may have been forming far earlier and faster than anyone expected. The telescope has upended the universe and tested the models of cosmic history according to existing theories.

Researchers have found two exceptionally bright galaxies that existed approximately 350 and 450 million years after the big bang. These and other observations are nudging astronomers toward a consensus that an unusual number of galaxies in the early universe were much brighter than expected.

“We’ve nailed something that is incredibly fascinating. These galaxies would have to have started coming together maybe just 100 million years after the big bang. Nobody expected that the dark ages would have ended so early,” said Garth Illingworth, professor emeritus of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz. “The primal universe would have been just one hundredth its current age. It’s a sliver of time in the 13.8-billion-year-old evolving cosmos.”

“Everything we see is new. Webb is showing us that there’s a very rich universe beyond what we imagined,” said Tommaso Treu at UCLA, a principal investigator on one of the Webb programs. “Once again, the universe has surprised us. These early galaxies are very unusual in many ways.”

The initial JWST results suggest that stars and galaxies may have been forming far earlier and faster than anyone expected. The telescope has upended the universe and tested the models of cosmic history according to existing theories.

While subsequent data may have ruled out some of the more dramatic findings and new simulations can accommodate a few of the new observations, some bright mass and early galaxies continue to confound theorists, suggesting our understanding could shift in the coming years.

According to believers, “No data from JWST has broken the universe; however, it has created tension on different scales.” Resolving this will require researchers to revisit their fundamental assumptions about galactic evolution and bring new ideas into play while leaving others in the cosmic dustbin.

Prior to the JWST, no one knew if galaxies could exist this early in the history of the formation of our universe.

2023 ESA’s mission Euclid

July 1, A SpaceX rocket launched a new space telescope into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Fla. It’s destination was Sun-Earth Lagrange point 2, 1.5 million km from Earth. It took a month to reach its destination and has now begun sending its discoveries back to Earth as it continues to investigate how dark matter and dark energy influenced the way our universe looks today.

ESA’s Euclid mission is designed to explore the composition and evolution of the dark Universe. The space telescope will create a great map of the large-scale structure of the Universe across space and time by observing billions of galaxies out to 10 billion light-years, across more than a third of the sky. Euclid will explore how the Universe has expanded and how structure has formed over cosmic history, revealing more about the role of gravity and the nature of dark energy and dark matter.

The telescope’s high-precision observations will allow unprecedented measurements of weak gravitational lensing—the subtle warping of light from background galaxies and clusters that is caused by the gravitational fields of intervening massive objects. Researchers can use these weak distortions to map dark matter’s distribution. The telescope will also study what are called baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs). These are wavelike ripples in the density of matter that froze out from the fiery plasma filling the universe in the first 300,000 years or so after the big bang, and they’re thought to have influenced where galaxies subsequently formed. Mapping the distribution of far-off galaxies will help reveal the presence and patterning of these ripples—two presently murky types of measurements that can help cosmologists pin down the universe’s exact expansion rate.

The goal of the Euclid mission is to create the most extensive three-dimensional map of the cosmos we have ever known. To make it, the telescope’s survey will stretch across one third of the sky and out to a distance of 10 billion light-years. Given the universe’s 13.8-billion-year age and light’s finite speed, that means Euclid will probe the cosmic web’s evolution from a time close to when the first stars were forming. “You’re able to go explore a part of the universe that, up until this point, we have very little data about,” says Tanveer Karim, a fellow in observational cosmology at the University of Toronto, who is not involved in the mission.

The first full-color science images from the Euclid space telescope showcase crystal-clear views of hundreds of thousands of galaxies, star clusters and other stunning cosmic objects. The extraordinary sharpness and breadth of these images are a testament to the Euclid telescope’s ability to survey large swatches of the sky in incredible clarity. Many of them offer sprawling views of well-studied regions that other telescopes could only replicate via stitched-together composites of many time-consuming observations. Euclid, in contrast, can capture such large-scale snapshots in under an hour. There are more than 100,000 galaxies in the telescope’s first snapshot of the Perseus cluster, including extremely faint ones that were never seen before.

The extraordinary sharpness and breadth of these images are a testament to the Euclid telescope’s ability to survey large swatches of the sky in incredible clarity. Many of them offer sprawling views of well-studied regions that other telescopes could only replicate via stitched-together composites of many time-consuming observations. Euclid, in contrast, can capture such large-scale snapshots in under an hour. There are more than 100,000 galaxies in the telescope’s first snapshot of the Perseus cluster, including extremely faint ones that were never seen before.

Interferometers

Interferometers have been used in various experiments to study wave interference patterns, gravitational waves, and optical lengths of laser beams, among other applications. Devices like Michelson interferometers have been pivotal in many experiments related to gravity and electromagnetic phenomena.

Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)

VLBI, 1960 is a radio astronomy technique that combines signals from multiple radio telescopes to create an interferometer with a size equivalent to the maximum separation between telescopes. This technique allows for simultaneous observations from different locations, enhancing our understanding of astronomical radio sources.

Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

LIGO, 1990’s, is a network of observatories designed to detect gravitational waves. These interferometers measure the variations in optical lengths of laser beams caused by gravitational bending. LIGO has opened up a new window of observation, allowing us to directly study gravitational waves and explore the nature of spacetime.

Atomic Clocks

The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell proposed measuring time with the vibrations of light waves in his 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism: ‘A more universal unit of time might be found by taking the periodic time of vibration of the particular kind of light whose wave length is the unit of length.

During the 1930s, Isidor Rabi built equipment for atomic-beam magnetic resonance frequency clocks. Isidor Rabi. He proposed a concept in 1945, which led to a demonstration of a clock based on ammonia in 1949.

The first atomic clock was invented in 1949 by Harold Lyons at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Lyons’s clock used the ammonia molecule to measure time, but it was not as accurate as modern atomic clocks.

This led to the first practical accurate atomic clock with cesium atoms being built at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom in 1955 by Louis Essen in collaboration with Jack Parry.

This led to the first practical accurate atomic clock with cesium atoms being built at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom in 1955 by Louis Essen in collaboration with Jack Parry.

In 1967, the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures redefined the second as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. This definition of the second is based on the frequency of the cesium atom, which is extremely stable.

Atomic clocks, which count seconds by measuring the frequency of radiation emitted when electrons around an atom change energy states, have been used recently to detect what might be quantum gravity.

Particle Accelerators

Particle accelerators have played a vital role in the development of physics. They have enabled physicists to discover new particles, study the fundamental forces of nature, and test the theories of physics. Particle accelerators are also used in a variety of other fields, such as medicine, materials science, and industry. A short history of particle accelerators is shown below:

1879: William Crookes invents the Crookes tube, which is the first device to accelerate electrons using an electric field.

1898: J.J. Thomson discovers the electron using a Crookes tube.

1909: Ernest Rutherford discovers the proton and alpha particle using a Crookes tube.

1919: Rutherford and his collaborators build the first particle accelerator, a 250 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator.

1932: Cockcroft and Walton use their accelerator to split lithium atoms, the first time that an atom had been split by artificial means.

1937: Ernest Lawrence invents the cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator that uses a magnetic field to accelerate particles in a spiral path.

1946: The first synchrotron accelerator is built at Stanford University.

1954: The Berkeley Bevatron, the first particle accelerator to reach energies above 1 GeV, is completed.

1967: The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is completed. SLAC is a 3 km long linear accelerator that can accelerate electrons to energies of 50 GeV.

1971: The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) completes the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), the first particle accelerator to collide two beams of protons.

1983: CERN completes the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), a proton accelerator with a circumference of 7 km.

1987: SLAC completes the Stanford Positron-Electron Accelerator (SPEAR), a 3.8 km long electron-positron collider.

1989: CERN completes the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP), a 27 km long electron-positron collider.

2008: CERN completes replacing the LEP with new beam optics to make the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest and most powerful particle accelerator ever built. The LHC can collide two beams of protons at energies of 13 TeV.

Particle accelerators from the 1940s onwards have been instrumental in high-energy physics research. They accelerate particles to near-light speeds and collide them to study fundamental particles and their interactions. From the UC Bevatron to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, accelerators have helped discover particles and measure their energies relative to Z0.

Summary

These apparatus, with their increased stimuli and measurement capabilities have allowed scientists to delve deeper into the workings of the universe. With new observations in 2023, the JWST challenged existing theories, paving the way for further advancements in our understanding of gravity and revealed the prescience of the Z0 Theory.