Mixing is the process where two EM energy levels defined by their frequency are combined to form additional frequencies either through simple addition and subtraction or multiplication.

** Linear mixing** is a process in which two signals are combined to produce a new signal that is the sum of the two input signals. The formula for linear signal mixing is: F

_{out}= m

_{f1}+/- m

_{f2}.

** Nonlinear mixing** is a process in which two signals are combined to produce a new signal that contains not only the sum and difference of the two input signals but also new harmonic frequency components that are not present in the input signals.

One way to understand nonlinear mixing is to think of it as a process in which the input signals are multiplied together. This multiplication can produce new frequency components that are not present in the input signals. For example, if two signals with frequencies f1 and f2 are multiplied together, the output signal will contain the following frequency components:

Nonlinear mixing is a process in which two or more signals are combined to produce a new signal that contains not only the sum and difference of the input signals but also new frequency components that are not present in the input signals.

f1 + f2

f1 – f2

2f1

2f2

3f1

3f2

…

The even harmonics (2f1 and 2f2) will be cancelled out, because they are multiplied by each other to produce a DC signal. The odd harmonics (f1 + f2, f1 – f2, 3f1, and 3f2) will not be cancelled out.

This is why nonlinear mixing is often used to generate odd harmonics. It is a very efficient way to produce odd harmonics, and it can be used to produce odd harmonics at very high frequencies. Nonlinear mixing is used in a variety of applications, including radio frequency (RF) mixers, frequency synthesizers, and modulators. It is also used in some types of particle accelerators to generate high-energy beams. The fact that nonlinear mixing favors odd harmonics is important for the Z_{0} Theory.

Z_{0} suggests this is a fundamental frequency of the universe, as it is the dividing line in the spectrum between EM energy, or photons, and particles seen in the standard model, a theoretical framework that describes the fundamental particles. This is the point in the EM spectrum where the charge voltage cannot be sustained due to the arc distance of the wavelength. At this point, a voltage breakdown occurs. The magnetic field of the photon collapses into a toroid, and the electron is freed from the anti-electron.