# Theories

Geocentric Model

The ancient Greek astronomer Ptolemy proposed a geocentric model of the universe, placing the Earth at the center and celestial bodies moving in complex orbits around it. This model was widely accepted for centuries until the heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center, gained prominence during the Scientific Revolution.

Phlogiston Theory

Before the modern understanding of combustion, the phlogiston theory posited the existence of a substance called phlogiston that was released during burning. Antoine Lavoisier’s work in the late 18th century helped replace this theory with the modern understanding of oxidation.

Newton’s Shell Theorem

Newton’s Shell Theorem, formulated around 1700, establishes two key principles:

Firstly, it posits that a spherically symmetric body interacts gravitationally with external objects as if its entire mass were concentrated at a single point located at its center. This simplification aids in calculating complex gravitational interactions more effectively.

Secondly, when applied to a spherically symmetric shell, such as a hollow sphere, the theorem asserts that the shell exerts no net gravitational force on any object inside, regardless of its position within the shell. This observation highlights the intricate dynamics of gravitational fields and their interactions.

A significant implication of the shell theorem arises when considering the gravitational force within a solid sphere of constant density. Within such a sphere, the gravitational force varies linearly with distance from the center, reaching zero at the center of mass due to symmetry.

Newton’s insights into the shell theorem revolutionized our understanding of gravitational phenomena and laid the groundwork for his work on planetary motion. While it finds broad utility, some doubt its applicability in scenarios involving quantum mechanics, particularly at small scales, where individual particles may exert gravitational attraction independently.

In quantum dynamics, the individual mass units within a collective mass exhibit gravitational attraction independently, challenging the notion that the center of gravity coincides precisely with the center of attraction within a massive body. This discrepancy underscores the need for a refined theoretical framework capable of accommodating gravitational dynamics at quantum scales.

Gauss’s law for gravity

Gauss’s law for gravity is a fundamental principle in physics, serving as a counterpart to Newton’s law of universal gravitation. This law, named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, asserts that the gravitational flux through any closed surface is directly proportional to the enclosed mass. Mathematically, it can be derived from Newton’s law of universal gravitation, which defines the gravitational field due to a point mass as ∇g = – 4πGρ, where ∇ ⋅ denotes divergence, G represents the universal gravitational constant, and ρ signifies the mass density at each point.

Similar to Gauss’s law for electrostatics in Maxwell’s equations, Gauss’s law for gravity offers a convenient framework for analyzing gravitational interactions. It shares a mathematical resemblance to Gauss’s law for electrostatics and Coulomb’s law, as all three describe inverse-square interactions in a three-dimensional space. In practical terms, Gauss’s law for gravity enables physicists to calculate gravitational flux, which involves integrating the gravitational field over a closed surface. This concept is akin to magnetic flux in electromagnetism, providing a means to quantify the gravitational influence exerted by enclosed masses.

Overall, Gauss’s law for gravity plays a crucial role in understanding gravitational phenomena, providing a mathematical tool to analyze gravitational fields and their effects on surrounding matter.

Aether Theory

In the 19th century, scientists believed in the existence of a medium called luminiferous aether through which light waves were thought to propagate. The Michelson-Morley experiment in 1887 failed to detect the motion of the Earth through this aether, leading to the abandonment of the concept.

In the 19th century, scientists proposed the existence of an “aether” as a medium through which light waves propagated. This theory aimed to explain the wave-like nature of light, but it was eventually replaced by the theory of electromagnetic fields.

The Tired light theory

Recognition that the Universe is in a state of expansion is a milestone in modern astronomy and cosmology. The discovery dates from the early 1930s but was not unanimously accepted by either astronomers or physicists. The relativistic theory of the expanding Universe rested empirically on the redshift-distance law established by Edwin Hubble in 1929. However, although the theory offered a natural explanation of the observed galactic redshifts, these could be explained also on the assumption of a Static Universe. This was what Fritz Zwicky did when he introduced the idea of “tired light” in the fall of 1929.

Proposed by Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle in 1948, this theory suggested that the universe is eternal and maintains a constant density over time. However, the observational evidence supporting the Big Bang theory eventually led to the decline of the Steady State Theory.

Maxwell’s Intuition and the Fourth Equation:

In the 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell revolutionized physics by formulating a set of equations that elegantly described the fundamental forces of electricity and magnetism. However, the puzzle wasn’t complete until Maxwell had his own “Eureka” moment, recognizing that the equations needed a fourth term to unify these forces. This addition, now known as Maxwell’s fourth equation, introduced the concept of electromagnetic waves and paved the way for our modern understanding of light as an electromagnetic phenomenon.

Much like Maxwell’s intuition that linked electricity and magnetism, the QA insight suggests a profound link between energy and gravity. If energy, in the form of light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, can influence gravity, it implies a reciprocal relationship – gravity, in turn, may influence energy. This bi-directional interaction challenges our conventional view of these fundamental forces.

Einstein’s Theories of Special and General Relativity revolutionized our understanding of space, time, and gravity. Special relativity deals with objects moving at constant velocities, while general relativity describes how gravity affects the properties of spacetime and introduces the concept of spacetime curvature due to mass and energy. However, it should be noted that these theories do not provide a “gathering capability” for organizing the universe or scaling it to the size we see. Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the most accurate theory of gravity that we have, but it is also very complex. It is difficult to test in extreme situations, such as near black holes or in the very early universe.

Einstein’s General Relativity

Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity introduced a groundbreaking concept – he realized that gravity isn’t limited to its traditional role of attracting masses. Instead, it extends its influence to energy, including light. This was a true “Eureka” moment for Einstein.

General relativity describes gravity as a curvature of spacetime caused by the presence of mass and energy. In the framework of general relativity, massive objects warp the very fabric of spacetime around them. This warping creates a gravitational field that dictates how objects move through space. Importantly, this field affects not only the paths of physical objects but also the behavior of light itself.

General relativity has been extremely successful in explaining a wide range of phenomena, including the orbit of Mercury, the bending of light by gravity, and the expansion of the universe.

While Einstein’s general relativity was hailed as groundbreaking, it left us grappling with the intricacies of mass-gravity relationships and a redefined concept of “time.”

Einstein’s Special Relativity

At the heart of this definition lies the intricate relationship between mass and energy. Objects with mass generate gravitational fields, warping the spacetime around them, and influencing the motion of other objects within their reach. However, as Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity unveiled, gravity’s grasp extends beyond mass alone; it encompasses energy, including light.

When you shine a flashlight upward, the light’s journey becomes subtly altered as it passes through the gravitational field of a massive object, like a planet or star. This effect is known as gravitational lensing. It’s as if the gravity of the massive object is bending the path of the light, much like a lens bends the path of a beam of light.

This phenomenon is not just a curiosity; it is thought to be a powerful confirmation of Einstein’s theory, underscoring the intimate connection between gravity and energy.

The idea that energy can affect gravity is tantalizing, hinting at the possibility of manipulating gravitational fields through concentrated energy. The suggestion that if gravity can influence energy, then energy, in turn, can influence gravity is the foundation of the QA Theory.

Black Holes

Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole. The boundary of no escape is called the event horizon. Although it has a great effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, it has no locally detectable features according to general relativity.

Black holes are theorized to be gravitational sinks where mass is so large that electromagnetic radiation cannot escape. They are called black holes because light cannot escape their gravity. The ring of no return is called the event horizon.

In many ways, a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light. Moreover, quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.

Black holes are thought to be at the centers of galaxies. Mass in each galaxy is attracted to them. Conversely, is it not possible that the energy in each galaxy lines up to force a current flow through its center? This would increase the magnetic ring recently observed.

Planck’s Theory

Max Planck’s groundbreaking theory, developed in 1900, laid the foundation for quantum theory and revolutionized our understanding of the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. Planck introduced the concept of quantized energy, suggesting that energy is emitted or absorbed in discrete units called quanta. Planck proposed that energy is quantized in multiples of a fundamental constant, now known as Planck’s constant (h). This quantization of energy was a departure from classical physics, introducing a probabilistic and discontinuous nature at the microscopic scale. This idea was a response to the long-standing problem known as the ultraviolet catastrophe in classical physics, where the predictions for blackbody radiation diverged from experimental observations.

Planck’s work laid the groundwork for the development of quantum Mechanics, a theory further expanded by physicists like Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werne Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger. The principles of quantum mechanics have since become fundamental to our understanding of the behavior of particles and waves in the quantum realm, shaping the entire field of modern physics.

Planck’s work established fundamental natural units for mass, energy, time, and length. These measures were derived from three universal constants: the Planck constant, Newton’s gravitational constant, and the speed of light. These measures set theoretical limits on the smallest possible values of crucial physical quantities in the universe.

Planck scale

Length: At the Planck scale, the smallest measurable length in the universe is approximately 1.6 x 10^(-35) meters, suggesting a fundamental granularity to spatial dimensions.

Mass: The smallest conceivable mass in the universe, about 2.18 x 10^(-8) kilograms, implies a fundamental limit to the amount of matter that can exist.

Time: The briefest possible time interval in the universe, around 5.39 x 10^(-44) seconds, signifies a fundamental unit of temporal progression.

Temperature: The highest attainable temperature in the universe, approximately 1.42 x 10^(32) Kelvin, sets a theoretical limit beyond which conventional thermal concepts break down.

Derived Planck units

While the Planck measures themselves may not carry specific physical significance, their derived units offer additional insights into fundamental constraints:

Area: The smallest conceivable area in the universe, approximately 2.6121×10^(-70) m^2, hints at fundamental limits to spatial resolution.

Volume: The smallest possible volume in the universe, about 4.2217×10^(-105) m^3, suggests a minimal unit of spatial extent.

Momentum: The smallest possible momentum in the universe, around 6.5249 kg⋅m/s, implies a fundamental granularity to the motion of particles.

Energy: The largest conceivable unit of energy in the universe, about 1.986 x 10^9 joules, underscores the quantization of energy.

Force: The greatest conceivable force in the universe, approximately 1.2103×10^44 N, indicates a fundamental limit to the strength of interactions.

Density: The highest possible density in the universe, around 5.1550×10^96 kg/m^3, suggests a limit to the concentration of mass in space.

Acceleration: The highest possible acceleration in the universe, about 5.5608×10^51 m/s^2, signifies a limit to the rate of change of velocity.

Understanding the Planck scale not only provides insights into the foundational limits of physical quantities but also poses intriguing questions about the nature of spacetime and the fabric of the universe at these extreme scales.

Big Bang Theory

The Big Bang, proposed by Georges Lemaitre, is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe. It states that the universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state and that it has been expanding and cooling ever since. This theory is supported by a wide range of evidence, including the cosmic microwave background radiation, the abundance of light elements, and Hubble’s redshift of distant galaxies, an indication that galaxies are moving apart from each other.

Expansion

Based on the Hubble Redshift theory, subsequent to the Big Bang, scientists have built on his idea of cosmic expansion as the prevailing cosmological model for the universe. This seemingly holds from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution, with the exception of a bump in the expansion rate earlier in time.

Quantum mechanics

The QA Theory, by linking gravity to energy, has the potential to unify quantum mechanics with general relativity, which would be a major breakthrough in physics.

Variable speed of light theory of gravity

In 1957, Robert Dicke introduced a Variable Speed of Light (VSL) theory of gravity, departing from general relativity by allowing the speed of light to vary for a free-falling observer. Dicke considered varying frequencies and wavelengths, leading to a relative change in the speed of light. He proposed a refractive index formula consistent with light deflection, suggesting its origin in the matter throughout the universe, aligning with Mach’s principle. Dicke explored a cosmology where the speed of light decreases over time, offering an alternative explanation for the cosmological redshift.

Some researchers and groups that explored or built upon Robert Dicke’s work on variable speed of light theories:

Dirac’s Large Numbers Hypothesis: Some models link variable speed of light theories to Dirac’s Large Numbers Hypothesis, which suggests a connection between the size and age of the universe and certain fundamental constants.

Giere and Tan (1986): Proposed a hypothesis for varying speed of light seemingly in contradiction to general relativity theory.

Sanejouand (2009): Published a hypothesis for varying speed of light.

Cosmological Models with Varying Speeds of Light

Jean-Pierre Petit (1988): Proposed a cosmological model with varying speeds of light to address the horizon problem in cosmology.

John Moffat (1992): Suggested a cosmological model with varying speed of light.

Andreas Albrecht and João Magueijo (1998): Proposed a cosmological model with varying speed of light as an alternative to cosmic inflation.

These ideas are similar to the QA Theory.

First Jerk

Every system exhibits a “first jerk,” which is the minimum displacement that occurs when energy is applied to a system. In a servo system, this basic movement would be called the “first jerk,” the barely discernible but required first step or movement to separate the static from the dynamic. This represents the minimum energy required to make a system move. This is Plank’s quantum, the energy required to overcome the threshold of tension holding the charge together.

The Standard Model

A theory of the fundamental particles and forces of nature. It explains the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions and classifies subatomic particles. It has been successful in explaining experimental results, but it does not incorporate the full theory of gravitation described by general relativity and does not account for the accelerating expansion of the universe or dark matter. The Standard Model of particle physics is the most complete theory of elementary particles and their interactions. However, it does not include gravity or dark matter.

In contrast, QA presents a unique perspective by combining Maxwell’s ε0 and μ0 with Einstein’s famous equation E=mc2. This novel approach introduces a transmission line theory to understand the behavior of energy traveling through space with energy discontinuities, potentially providing new insights into the organization and scaling of the universe. QA is based on the idea that gravity is caused by the curvature of spacetime due to the flow of energy. This is a significant departure from Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which describes gravity as the curvature of spacetime due to the presence of mass and energy. As a result, QA addresses certain limitations present in current theories and offers new avenues for exploration in our understanding of the cosmos.

Super Symmetry and the Standard Model

Super Symmetry (SUSY) represents an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, offering a theoretical framework that aims to address some of the model’s unresolved questions. Introduced in the 1970s, SUSY proposes a fundamental symmetry between the known elementary particles and hypothetical “superpartners,” providing a possible solution to several issues within particle physics.

At its core, SUSY postulates the existence of a new symmetry between two classes of particles: fermions and bosons. Fermions, such as quarks and leptons, are the building blocks of matter, while bosons, like photons and W/Z bosons, govern fundamental forces. According to SUSY, each known fermion would have a corresponding bosonic partner, and vice versa. These superpartners would share the same quantum numbers as their ordinary counterparts but differ in their intrinsic spin properties.

One of the primary motivations for SUSY arises from its potential to resolve the hierarchy problem, which concerns the vast disparity between the weak force and gravity. The introduction of superpartners could stabilize the masses of elementary particles and offer a natural explanation for the observed hierarchy.

Moreover, SUSY provides a compelling candidate for dark matter, an elusive form of matter that constitutes a significant portion of the universe’s mass but does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) remains stable and possesses the characteristics necessary to account for dark matter’s gravitational effects, offering a promising avenue for experimental verification.

While SUSY presents an elegant solution to several theoretical challenges, experimental evidence for superpartners has remained elusive thus far. Collider experiments, such as those conducted at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), have searched for signatures of SUSY particles but have yet to yield definitive results. Nonetheless, the pursuit of SUSY continues to drive theoretical and experimental research in particle physics, offering tantalizing prospects for a deeper understanding of the universe’s fundamental constituents and interactions.

String Theory

String theory is a theoretical framework that proposes a fascinating concept: fundamental particles are not point-like but tiny vibrating strings. These strings, which are components of near-field properties, exhibit energy subject to complex impedances, including negative values in the time dimension, allowing for the attraction of similar polarities.

The cornerstone of the peculiar behavior of strings is their interaction with waves and magnetic domains. Strings provide a viable route for understanding the fundamental interactions in the universe, including plausible explanations for the unification of standard model fields and the creation of gravitational fields in the framework of a related particle theory.

A key feature of string theory is its potential for background independence, particularly evident in the abstract phase of moving strings. This concept necessitates the existence of strings as fundamental entities in the theory, leading to a profound understanding of the fabric of reality.

In the realm of quantum fields, supersymmetry plays a crucial role. This principle posits that for every known particle, there exists a mirror-image particle with identical properties except for its spin. Spins, in this context, represent a binary representation of a particle’s function, allowing it to be in an “up” or “down” state or even in a superposition of both.

However, it’s essential to acknowledge that while string theory offers intriguing possibilities, it currently lacks experimental evidence or empirical tests to confirm its validity. Nevertheless, its potential to provide insights into the unification of fundamental forces and the nature of particles makes it an active and exciting area of ongoing research in the quest to understand the universe at its deepest level.

2009 Entropic Gravity

Eric Verlinde’s theory of gravity is a radical new approach to understanding one of the most fundamental forces in the universe. Verlinde argues that gravity is not a fundamental force at all, but rather an emergent phenomenon that arises from the entanglement of information in spacetime.

Verlinde’s theory is based on the holographic principle, which states that all of the information contained in a three-dimensional volume of space can be encoded on a two-dimensional surface. This means that the universe is essentially a holographic projection of a lower-dimensional reality.

Verlinde argues that the entanglement of information in this lower-dimensional reality gives rise to the appearance of gravity in our three-dimensional universe. In other words, gravity is not a force that pulls objects together, but rather an emergent phenomenon that arises from the way that information is distributed in spacetime.

Verlinde’s theory of gravity has a number of important implications. For example, it suggests that gravity is not as strong as it should be if it were a fundamental force. This is because the entropy of spacetime is proportional to its area, and entropy is always increasing. This means that the strength of gravity must be decreasing over time.

Loop Quantum Gravity

Loop quantum gravity is a theory of gravity that attempts to describe gravity in terms of tiny loops or ” quanta” of spacetime. These quanta are thought to be the fundamental building blocks of spacetime, and they are believed to be much smaller than anything we can currently observe. LQG has the potential to explain some of the mysteries of black holes, such as the singularity at the center of a black hole. However, LQG is still a relatively new theory, and it is not yet fully developed.

Emergent Gravity

Emergent gravity is a theory that suggests that gravity is not a fundamental force of nature, but rather an emergent phenomenon that arises from other, more fundamental forces. This theory is based on the idea that the universe is made up of many tiny particles, and that the gravitational force is simply the result of the collective interactions of these particles. Emergent gravity has the potential to explain gravity in a way that is consistent with quantum mechanics, but it is still a controversial theory.

Modified Newtonian Dynamics

Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a theory that suggests that gravity deviates from Newton’s law of universal gravitation at very low accelerations. MOND has been proposed as a possible explanation for the observation that galaxies rotate too quickly to be held together by their own gravity. However, MOND is not a complete theory of gravity, and it does not explain all of the phenomena that we observe in the universe.

Teleparallel Gravity

Teleparallel gravity is a theory of gravity that is based on the idea that spacetime is filled with a field of parallel vectors. This field is called the Weitzenböck connection, and it is thought to be responsible for the curvature of spacetime. Teleparallel gravity is similar to general relativity in some ways, but it does not require the existence of a spacetime metric. This makes teleparallel gravity more compatible with quantum mechanics, and it has the potential to explain some of the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy.

Classical Bimetric Gravity

Classical bimetric gravity is a theory of gravity that introduces a second metric field in addition to the standard metric of spacetime. This second metric is thought to be responsible for the gravitational force. Classical bimetric gravity has the potential to explain some of the mysteries of black holes, and it may also be able to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces. However, classical bimetric gravity is still a relatively new theory, and it is not yet fully developed.

The Z0 Theory.

In contrast to conventional theories linking gravity solely to mass, Z0 posits that gravity is intricately tied to the acceleration of charge driven by energy density. Spatial impedance governs the gradients of electromagnetic (EM) energy, propelling the acceleration of energy and thereby generating a force equivalent to gravity.

Z0 establishes energy as the foundational element for equivalent gravity, grounded in entropy—the principle of minimum energy, essentially a restatement of the second law of thermodynamics. This inverts relativity by substituting the rate of change of time with the rate of change of the speed of energy. Consequently, both gravity and the workings of the universe become universally applicable at any scale.