Gravity has captivated the human mind since the dawn of consciousness. Its omnipresence shapes the very fabric of our existence, influencing the motion of celestial bodies, the formation of galaxies, and the trajectory of every living being. From the ancient musings of philosophers to the cutting-edge theories of modern physicists, the quest to understand gravity has been a journey spanning millennia.

At the heart of the majority of gravity theories lies the concept of mass, intertwined with the fundamental forces that govern the universe. These present the idea that every particle, every molecule, every planet, every star exerts its gravitational pull to explain the interactions that shape the cosmos as we know it.

These theories, born from centuries of observation, experimentation, and theoretical speculation, serve as the pillars of our understanding of the universe. Without gravity, the cosmos would be an empty void, devoid of structure and order. It is the alleged force that binds galaxies together, shapes planetary orbits, and imbues every object with weight and substance.

As we embark on this journey of exploration, let us understand the previous ideas of gravity to glimpse the intricate web of cosmic forces that govern our existence. From the ancient wisdom of Aristotle to the cutting-edge concepts of string theory and beyond, the pursuit of gravity’s secrets continues to inspire and challenge the boundaries of human knowledge.

Aristotle’s geocentric cosmological model, which proposed that the Earth was at the center of the universe, with celestial bodies orbiting around it in concentric spheres.

A cosmological model in which the Earth is considered to be the stationary center of the universe, with the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars orbiting around it.

In the 17th century, Johannes Kepler laid the groundwork for understanding planetary motion with his empirical laws. These laws described the elliptical orbits of planets around the sun, but didn’t delve into the underlying force causing this motion.

The true revolution in our understanding of gravity came with Isaac Newton. Building upon Kepler’s work and his own laws of motion, Newton formulated the concept of universal gravitation. His famous equation, F=G*(m_{1}*m_{2})/r^{2}, described the gravitational attraction between any two objects with mass.

Gauss’s law for gravity is a fundamental principle in physics, serving as a counterpart to Newton’s law of universal gravitation. This law, named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, asserts that the gravitational flux through any closed surface is directly proportional to the enclosed mass.

An outdated scientific theory proposing the existence of a medium called “aether” that permeates the universe and serves as a medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

A hypothesis suggesting that the redshift of light from distant galaxies is caused by the gradual loss of energy (“tiredness”) as light travels through space.

A cosmological model proposing that the universe has no beginning or end and maintains a constant average density over time, with new matter continuously being created to fill in the gaps left by the expansion of the universe.

James Clerk Maxwell’s theory unifying electricity and magnetism into a single set of equations known as Maxwell’s equations, which describe how electric and magnetic fields interact.

Albert Einstein’s theories of special and general relativity, which revolutionized our understanding of space, time, gravity, and the universe’s structure.

A theory proposed by Hendrik Lorentz to explain the results of the Michelson–Morley experiment within the framework of classical mechanics by introducing a stationary aether.

Regions of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from them, formed by the gravitational collapse of massive stars.

Max Planck’s quantum theory, which revolutionized physics by introducing the concept of quantized energy and laying the groundwork for quantum mechanics.

The prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe’s early development, positing that the universe originated from a hot, dense state approximately 13.8 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

The deduction that the universe may be expanding as seen by redshift in spectral frequencies of celestial objects being shifted down in expected frequency.

An idea relating the relationship between inertia and the distribution of mass in the universe.

**Dirac’s Large Number Hypothesis**

This hypothesis suggests a connection between the gravity, electromagnetic force, and the passage of time.

A theory of gravity formulated within the framework of teleparallelism, in which spacetime is described by a torsion tensor instead of curvature.

The branch of physics that describes the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scales, characterized by principles such as wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle.

A theoretical framework that combines quantum mechanics with special relativity, describing particles as excitations of underlying quantum fields.

Exploring the Phenomenon of Quantum Tunneling.

**Variable Speed of Light Gravity**

Hypothetical theories proposing that the speed of light may have changed over cosmological time scales, potentially offering alternative explanations for cosmological phenomena.

Oppenheim’s concept envisions the fabric of space-time as a smooth but inherently wobbly structure, where fluctuations in the flow of time and irregularities in the warping of space create a dynamic, non-uniform universe.

A proposed explanation for electromagnetic interactions, suggesting that advanced electromagnetic waves traveling backward in time interact with retarded waves to produce the observed forces between charged particles.

A theoretical framework in particle physics that describes the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as the elementary particles that mediate them.

A proposed extension of the standard model that introduces new particles and symmetries, aiming to address several outstanding issues in particle physics, including the hierarchy problem and dark matter.

A theoretical framework in which the fundamental building blocks of the universe are not point-like particles but rather one-dimensional “strings” vibrating at different frequencies, offering a potential theory of everything.

A theoretical approach to gravity suggesting that gravity arises as an entropic force due to the tendency of systems to increase their entropy, providing an alternative explanation for gravitational phenomena.

A theory of quantum gravity that quantizes space into discrete, finite units called “loops,” aiming to reconcile general relativity with quantum mechanics.

A theoretical framework positing that gravity emerges as an effective macroscopic phenomenon from the collective behavior of underlying microscopic degrees of freedom.

Theoretical concepts related to the Higgs field and Higgs boson, which play a crucial role in the standard model by endowing elementary particles with mass.

Modifications to Newtonian mechanics proposed to explain observations at galactic and cosmological scales without the need for dark matter.

A theoretical framework describing gravity with two metrics, allowing for modifications to the theory of general relativity at large scales.

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The following theories to be added for the Quantum dipole study:

Quantum Tunneling

Quantum Entanglement

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)

Quantum Computing

Quantum Information Theory

Quantum Decoherence

Quantum Gravity Theories (e.g., String Theory, M-Theory)