**Absolute zero:** The temperature at which all atomic and molecular motion stops. This temperature is approximately -273.15 degrees Celsius. However, it is impossible to achieve a temperature of absolute zero in practice because there is always some residual heat energy present in any system.

**Acceleration:** The rate of change of the velocity of an object with respect to time change. Accelerations are vector quantities. The direction of the net force acting on an object determines the direction of its acceleration. Theory Z0’s important equation: G_{v}=∂c/∂t defines gravity as the acceleration of energy

**Atomic mass unit:** AMU, The unified atomic mass unit or Dalton is the standard unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic or molecular scale. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon and is numerically equivalent to 1g/mol. It is defined as one twelfth of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon-12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state.

**Atoms:** The basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday objects. A desk, the air, even you are made up of atoms! There are 90 naturally occurring kinds of atoms. These are shown on the periodic table. Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons (none in hydrogen-1). Protons and neutrons are called nucleons. Over 99.94% of the atom’s mass is in the nucleus.

The protons have a positive electric charge, the electrons have a negative electric charge, and the neutrons have no electric charge. If the number of protons and electrons are equal, that atom is electrically neutral. If an atom has more or fewer electrons than protons, then it has an overall negative or positive charge, respectively, and it is called an ion.

**Avogadro’s number: **(Avogadro’s constant) – The number of units in one mole of any substance (defined as its molecular weight in grams), is equal to 6.02214076 × 1023. The units may be electrons, atoms, ions, or molecules.

Accurate determinations of Avogadro’s number require the measurement of a single quantity on both the atomic and macroscopic scales using the same unit of measurement. This became possible for the first time when American physicist Robert Millikan measured the charge on an electron.

The charge on a mole of electrons had been known for some time and is the constant called the Faraday. The best estimate of the value of a Faraday, according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is 96,485.3383 coulombs per mole of electrons. The best estimate of the charge on an electron based on modern experiments is 1.60217653 x 10-19 coulombs per electron.

If you divide the charge on a mole of electrons by the charge on a single electron you obtain a value of Avogadro’s number of 6.02214154×1023 particles per mole.

**Beta decay:** Decay of Neutron into a Proton and Electron (and antineutrino).

**Cosmic Microwave Background: (CMB)** – Electromagnetic radiation thought to be a remnant from an early stage of the universe.

**Curl:** In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a 3-dimensional vector field. At every point in the field, the curl of that point is represented by a vector. The attributes of this vector (length and direction) characterize the rotation at that point. The direction of the curl is the axis of rotation, as determined by the right-hand rule, and the magnitude of the curl is the magnitude of rotation. If the vector field represents the flow velocity of a moving fluid, then the curl is the circulation density of the fluid.

The curl is a form of differentiation for vector fields. integral of the curl of a vector field to the line integral of the vector field around the boundary curve. The corresponding form of the fundamental theorem of calculus is Stokes’ theorem, which relates the surface.

Unlike the gradient and divergence, curl does not generalize as simply to other dimensions; some generalizations are possible, but only in three dimensions is the geometrically defined curl of a vector field again a vector field. This is a similar phenomenon as in the 3 dimensional cross product, and the connection is reflected in the notation ∇ × for the curl.

**Curvature:** The obstruction to flattening out the surface.

**Dependent:** A value or parameter derived from others. As opposed to emergent.

**Dielectric constant:** Property of an electrical insulating material equal to the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material.

**Disambiguation:** “Clarification that follows from the removal of ambiguity.” In the context of EM energy, disambiguation refers to the process of inducing the Photon energy contained in the magnetic flux field into the electron and antielectron pair to create a current in an externally coupled circuit. This phenomenon occurs in a localized “near-field” created by an impedance discontinuity in the path of a traveling wave.

**Divergence:** A vector operator that measures the magnitude of a vector field’s source or sink at a given point, in terms of a signed scalar. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point.

**Electromagnetic Impedance of Free Space:** also known as the wave impedance of free space, is a measure of the opposition that a medium offers to the propagation of an electromagnetic wave. It is defined as the ratio of the electric field strength to the magnetic field strength of the wave.

It is calculated as follows:

Z_{0} = sqrt μ_{0}/ε_{0}

Where:

μ_{0} the measured magnetic value of free space, which is approximately 4π × 10−7 H/m

ε_{0} is the measured electric value of free space, which is approximately 1 / (36π × 10−9 F/m)

The impedance of free space is Z_{0} = 376.730313668(57) Ω.

Electromagnetic impedance is used to design antennas, transmission lines, and other components that interact with electromagnetic waves. It is at the core of understanding the Z_{0} Code.

**Electromagnetic energy: **the energy exchanged by the force (voltage) times the distance (time) of any charged particle accelerating. The basic quantum of energy is 6.626 x 10^-34 joule-seconds.

**Electromagnetic force: **(EMF) the force exerted by the interaction of electrically charges or magnetically polarized particles or bodies.

**Electromagnetic radiation:** Has no mass but is affected by gravity. Is wave propagated. A single cycle is equivalent to a photon.

**Emergent:** An emergent behavior or emergent property can appear when a number of simple entities (agents) operate in an environment, forming more complex behaviors as a collective.

**Energy:** The power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources to provide light, heat or to work machines. A measure of work force transmissible between frames. Specifically for this theory is the fundamental basis for all physical characteristics in the universe. The symbol for energy is E. The international system of Units (SI) derived unit of energy is the Joule. In SI base units is J = kg m2 X-2.

There are several definitions of energy:

Work energy is the amount of energy transferred from one environment to another.

Potential energy is that stored in the binding forces of mass or fields.

Kinetic energy is energy in motion in self-contained mass or units of force.

Useful energy is that energy available after conversion from the storage medium.

The only known work energy that can travel through the universe and provide an effect inter frame is electromagnetic energy, also known as electromagnetic radiation.

**Entropy:** Is the general trend toward disorder. A measure of disorder or randomness in a closed system. In thermodynamics is the amount of energy not available to do work. Is the reason perpetual motion is not possible. The symbol for entropy is S. A change in entropy is shown as “delta” S or ΔS/ If the entropy of a system increases, ΔS is positive. If the entropy of a system decreases, ΔS is negative.

**Far field: **This is a common term for E and M fields in free space. Is where energy is opened up as a dipole and travels in a “wave”. This field has an impedance which regulates the speed of energy travel through it. The Magnetic field designated mu pr permeability. The Charge field designated E or permittivity. The impedance of this field is 377 ohms is free space.

**Fields:** A surface or space with different values assigned to each coordinate. For some theories they are used to represent simultaneous action (that which cannot be propagated). It is theorized field values are established using slower propagation times – I.e. gravity waves propagate at C but have instantaneous affect on items within the field.

**Fine Structure Constant:** Thought to be a constant which quantifies the strength of electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.

**Force:** Force is an interaction that changes movement of another object when unopposed. The ability to push or pull on “something” to cause it to change its momentum. A pressure transmitted between members in the same frame. A strength or energy as an attribute of physical action or movement. The international system of Units (SI) is the Newton. In Si base units N = kg x m / s2. Force between two objects has both magnitude and direction making it a vector quantity. Force between multiple objects is a tensor quantity.

**Frames: **A entity having common return path for force.

**Frame space:** That space in which one energy or mass has some affect on all energy inside of it. All inverse square law forces have frame space to the extent of their granularity.

**Frame Dragging:** In general relativity is a relativistic correction of the precession of a gyroscope near a large rotating mass such as the earth. In simplistic terms it means the rotation of a solid mass drags a gravitationaly coupled mass along with its rotation.

**Free space:** A theoretical vacuum that is completely devoid of any matter or energy. It is important to note that free space is a theoretical concept. In practice, it is impossible to create a perfect vacuum.

**Gravity:** Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or ‘gravitate’ towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles. It is speculated Gravity is responsible for the complexity in the universe, by creating spheres of hydrogen, igniting them under pressure to form stars and grouping them into galaxies. Without gravity, the universe would be an uncomplicated one, existing without thermal energy and composed only of equally spaced particles.

Gravity is described by the general theory of relativity (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915) not as a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of space-time caused by the uneven distribution of mass/energy and resulting in time dilation, where time lapses more slowly in strong gravitation. However, for most applications, gravity is well approximated by Newton’s law of universal gravitation, which postulates that gravity is a force where two bodies of mass are directly drawn (or ‘attracted’) to each other according to a mathematical relationship, where the attractive force is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

It is speculated gravity has an infinite range, such that all bodies (with mass) in the universe are drawn to each other no matter how far they are apart.

On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the tides and it cannot be absorbed, transformed, or shielded against.

__Note:__*Discrepancies in these views initiated this study from which a new concept is derived.*

**Gravitational waves:** Ripples in space time caused by large gravitational disturbances (e.g. merging of black holes).

**Gravitational Redshift:** In relativity is the phenomena that gravity waves traveling out of a “gravitational well” lose energy.

**Information:** What is conveyed by a particular arrangement or sequence of things. Combinatorial is static. Sequential is Dynamic. In physics the identity form or essence of a thing. In quantum physics information cannot be created or destroyed.

**Ion:** An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. When you are missing an electron or two, you have a positive charge. When you have an extra electron or two, you have a negative charge.

**Isotopes:** Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element.

**Isotropic** – Symmetry of sphere.

**Mass: **– The characteristic of having weight or body. It is a manifestation of having force. This force is an attraction of equip.-potential towards rest. The difference between +/- attraction and/or repulsion.

**Molecules:** – A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction. The smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound. A quantity of a substance, the weight of which, measured in any chosen unit, is numerically equal to the molecular weight; gram molecule.

**Near Field:** This field is where energy is coupled to its source and its self. Energy within a half wave of its source or load is in the near field “near field”. Impedances inside are complex and relate to phase shift in the various dimensions Energy can transfer to other entities within this field instantaneously.

**Nuclear spin: **It is common practice to represent the total angular momentum of a nucleus by the symbol I and to call it “nuclear spin”. For electrons in atoms we make a clear distinction between electron spin and electron orbital angular momentum, and then combine them to give the total angular momentum. Nuclei often act as if they are a single entity with intrinsic angular momentum I. Associated with each nuclear spin is a nuclear magnetic moment which produces magnetic interactions with its environment.

The nuclear spins for individual protons and neutrons parallels the treatment of electron spin, with spin 1/2 and an associated magnetic moment. The magnetic moment is much smaller than that of the electron. For the combination neutrons and protons into nuclei, the situation is more complicated.

**Neutrinos:** A Fermion that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity. The neutrino is so named because it is electrically neutral and because its rest mass is so small that it was long thought to be zero. The mass of the neutrino is much smaller than that of the other known elementary particles.

**Neutrons:** Found in the nucleus of an atom. Have no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. Under normal conditions, protons and neutrons stick together in the nucleus. During radioactive decay, they may be knocked out of there. Neutron numbers are able to change the mass of atoms, because they weigh about as much as a proton and electron together.

Even though it is not a chemical element, the neutron is included in the table of nuclides.

Within the nucleus, protons and neutrons are bound together through the nuclear force, and neutrons are required for the stability of nuclei.

**Nuclear force:** The attractive force that holds the particles in the nucleus together – gluons.

**Permeability of free space:** Commonly called the vacuum permeability, permeability of free space, permeability of vacuum, or magnetic constant. Is the magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum. Vacuum permeability is derived from production of a magnetic field by an electric current or by a moving electric charge and in all other formulas for magnetic-field production in a vacuum.

As of May 20, 2019, the vacuum permeability μ_{0} is no longer a defined constant (per the former definition of the SI ampere), but rather needs to be determined experimentally. The value in SI units, is given below. It is simply proportional to the dimensionless fine-structure constant, with no other dependencies. Its value is μ_{0} = 1.25663706212(19)×10−6 H/m.

**Permittivity of free space:** Commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or dielectric constant. It is the capability of an electric field to permeate a vacuum. This constant relates the units for electric charge to mechanical quantities such as length and force. It is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum. its value ε_{0} is = 8.8541878128(13)×10−12 F⋅m−1 (farads per meter), with a relative uncertainty of 1.5×10−10.

For example, the force between two separated electric charges with spherical symmetry (in the vacuum of classical electromagnetism) is given by Coulomb’s law:

F_{c} = 1/4πε_{0} x Q_{1}Q_{2}/r^{2}

Q_{1}Q_{2} are charges and r is the distance between centers

The value for permeability does not have any movement or time in it’s derivation

**Photons:** A photon is an elementary particle that is a quantum of the electromagnetic charge. It is the basic carrier of electromagnetic force. Photons are massless,so they always move at the speed of light in vacuum, 299792458 m/s (or about 186,282 mi/s). The photon belongs to the class of boson particles.

The modern photon concept originated during the first two decades of the 20th century with the work of Albert Einstein, who built upon the research of Max Planck. Using their descriptions, photons have no rest mass, and a spin of 1. Photons exhibit wave–particle duality, their behavior featuring properties of both waves and particles.

In the Z_{0} Code model, the photon is composed of electromagnetic dipole having the charge of one electron and an anti-electron caused by the charge moving through the Z_{0} field. This charge generates a reverse image wave behind (a virtual anti-proton) it as it moves. The energy appears borrowed from time but is simply the difference between the leading and trailing charge wave. Since the spin and polarity of these virtual charge waves are opposite it has no mass.

If one of the charges is disturbed, the energy is dissipated over a wideband of frequencies. The electron is freed. The wave collapses. This is the explanation for Einstein’s “spookey action at a distance.” Additionally, the Z_{0} model explains the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, and the blackbody spectrum of energy radiation.

The Photon can be of any wavelength, from infinity down to a wavelength so short that an electrical arc occurs. The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency. While the mathematical model was never formulated beyone planck’s e=hf, the Z_{0} Code uses the risetime of the photon’s wavelength as the metric.

**Planck’s Constant:** A fundamental physical constant that defines the relationship between energy and frequency in quantum mechanics. It is essential for understanding the behavior of matter at the atomic and subatomic levels. It is used in many important equations in quantum mechanics, such as the Schrödinger equation, which describes the behavior of matter waves. It is also used to define the kilogram, the SI unit of mass.

It can be thought of as the smallest amount of energy that can be transferred in a single quantum, such as a photon of light. The energy of a photon is equal to its frequency multiplied by Planck’s constant:

E=hf

Where the symbol h has a value of 6.62607015 × 10−34 joule seconds.

**Preambiguation:** The method in Theory Z_{0} of generating EM waves from EM energy for transfer through the vacuum of space. This process involves the conversion of energy from the near-field environment, where energy is in the spatial domain, to the far field, where it is in the time domain.

**Quantum:** A theory in physics that provides a description of physical properties at the particle level. Introduced by Plank to describe a limit of size of energy.

** Quantum entanglement**: A phenomenon in which two or more particles are linked together in such a way that they share the same fate, even if they are separated by a large distance. Quantum entanglement is a very strange and mysterious phenomenon, and it is still not fully understood by scientists.

**Quantum gravity:** Quantum gravity s a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics.

**Quantum temperature:** Using the idea that photon dipoles define the position of time, they also define the idea of absolute zero, the temperature at which all atomic and molecular motion stops. However, it is impossible to achieve a temperature of absolute zero in practice because there is always some residual heat energy present in any system. This is the idea of quantum energy based on Planck’s constant. In the vacuum of space, the closest thing we have to the idea of absolute zero is quantum noise at plus or minus a half-quantum.

**Quantum time:** Using the idea that photon dipoles borrow energy from a hole (energy from the past), it is defined that this past exists only within 1/4 of a wavelength of the center or 1/2 wavelength from the leading edge of a process. This essentially defines the field in which a single energy dipole couples energy to its source by magnetic flux. Quantum time is determined by the position of the charge in the photon dipole, which dithers as the dipole rotates.

**Quantum theory:** The theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level.

**Quantum vacuum:** a theoretical vacuum that is completely devoid of any matter or energy. It is important to note that free space is a theoretical concept. In practice, it is impossible to create a perfect vacuum. There is no place in the universe where this “free space” is found. Since free space is filled with at least quantum energy, there must always be a quantum vacuum with the energy noise of plus or minus a half-quantum.

**Radiation:** In early physics, is the emission of energy by a substance. There are two primary types:

Electromagnetic radiation where energy is released by charge movement caused by the acceleration / deceleration of energy.

Nuclear radiation relates to complex arrangements of particles as in molecules where subatomic particles are emitted by radioactive decay including:

Alpha – a nucleus shoots off two protons and neutrons – the nucleus of a Helium atom.

Beta – A nucleus shoots out an electron – it generally occurs when a neutron turn into a proton and electron.

Gamma – is when an extremely high energy photon escapes the nucleus.

Neutron – the ejection of a Neutron from the nucleus.

**Relativity:** Names of two theories by Albert Einstein as follows:

Special relativity applies to all physical phenomena in the absence of gravity.

General relativity explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature.

**Scalar:** Having magnitude but no direction.

**Scattering:** A change in the direction of motion of a particle because of a collision with another particle. As defined in physics, the results of a collision between particles that repel one another, such as two positive (or negative) ions, and need not involve direct physical contact of the particles.

**Space:** The volume that contains the universe. Three shapes identified:

Flat – Parallel lines stay parallel, infinitely large – In relativity is Minkowski space.

Curved – Parallel lines converge, not infinite – aka deSitter space.

Negative Curvature (hyperbolic) – parallel Lines diverge from each other, infinite.

Flat space is the only space where quantum mechanics is fully solvable.

**Speed of light:** (C) Within the theory of special relativity, the constant c is not exclusively about light; instead it is the highest possible speed for any interaction in nature.

Formally, c is a conversion factor for changing the unit of time to the unit of space. This makes it the only speed which does not depend either on the motion of an observer or a source of light and/or gravity. Thus, the speed of “light” is also the speed of gravitational waves and any other mass less particle. Such particles include the gluon (carrier of the strong force), the photons that make up light, and the theoretical gravitons which make up the associated field particles of gravity (however a theory of the graviton requires a theory of quantum gravity).

** Note**:

*Discrepancies in this initiated this study from which a new concept is derived.*

First defined in Maxwell’s equations using the permeability and permittivity of free space as **c=1/√μ**_{0}**ε**_{0.} Einstein redefined this value as constant. Since then we have been looking at physics of the universe through this lens.

The speed of light may be determined by propagation of electrons through the molecular soup of dark matter and dark energy.

**Spinor:** In geometry and physics, Spinors are elements of a (complex) vector space that can be associated with Euclidean space. Like geometric vectors and more general tensors, Spinors transform linearly when the Euclidean space is subjected to a slight (infinitesimal) rotation. When a sequence of such small rotations is composed (integrated) to form an overall final rotation, however, the resulting Spinor transformation depends on which sequence of small rotations was used, unlike for vectors and tensors.

A Spinor transforms to its negative when the space is rotated through a complete turn from 0° to 360° and it is this property that characterizes spinors.

In the 1920s physicists discovered that spinors are essential to describe the intrinsic angular momentum, or “spin”, of the electron and other subatomic particles.

**Square Law:** Square law applies to two dimensions usually related to area. Often used as an attenuation factor as the inverse.

**Standard Model:** A model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known. It was developed throughout the latter half of the 20th century, as a collaborative effort of scientists around the world. The current formulation was finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks.

**String Theory:** In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other.

On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge, and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force. Thus string theory is a theory of quantum gravity.

**Tensor:** A mathematical objects that can be used to describe physical properties, just like scalars and vectors. In fact tensors are merely a generalization of scalars and vectors; a scalar is a zero rank tensor, and a vector is a first rank tensor. The need for second rank tensors comes when we need to consider more than one direction to describe one of these physical properties. A good example of this is if we need to describe the electrical conductivity of a general, an-isotropic crystal or the apparent gravitational attraction at the molecular level.

**Time:** The indefinite and continued progress of existence and events in the past present and future. In classical physics it is a scalar quantity of measurement a fundamental quantity like length, mass and charge.

**Toroid:** A circular ring similar to a donut. This is sometimes spelled as torrid but for this document the first is used. he indefinite and continued progress of existence and events in the past present and future. In classical physics it is a scalar quantity of measurement a fundamental quantity like length, mass and charge.

**Universe:** That part of space the energy and mass observable to humans.

**Vector:** Having two coordinates in a dimension system.

**Waves:** A disturbance that travels through a medium that transports energy without matter. Waves are discouraged in relativistic physics.

**Z _{0}:** According to Maxwell Z

_{0}=√μ

_{0}/ε

_{0}. See “Impedance of Free Space.” The underlying equation for this theory.